image of ancient cross

The perennial goal of World Government has been, at least since 476 AD or thereabouts, to reunite Europe according to its maximum boundaries of extent during the time of the Caesars, and from there to extend that rule to the four quarters of the earth, starting with the boundaries of the preceeding three great Empires; Greece/Macedonia, Medo-Persia and Babylon under Nebuchadnezzor. The model of the Club of Rome appears to serve as a “power refractor” of that which is to occur within the bounds of a new and revived, and then “expanded”, Roman Empire. In other words, it is still the “old boundaries” of empire which will comprise the final ten-toed kingdom of the last days; whereas the Club of Rome model will undoubtedly reflect the final Empire in a regionalized and extended form, rather than being the “crux of government” itself..
In its widest extent, the Roman Empire included North Africa and the Levant ( Middle East) and ofcourse Turkey. If we superimpose the other three Empires, that of Greece, Medo-Persia and Babylon onto a map, we will see the “magnum opus” and “great plan” of World Government as a unification of all four empires; the “four cardinal points of the compass” of the ancient world, for it is from these ancient boundaries that all nations of the earth derive their origins.
Some may say that the Chinese and the Australian tribes are autocthonous and original, but unfortunately they are greatly mistaken. Even the Chinese, who were of old called “Cathays” or “Accadians” came from the region of Sumer, and to this day their linguistic characters reflect their distant Sumerian form. The Australian tribes were, until recently, regarded as originating from the Hindu Cush via Sri Lanka, and their predecessors and fellow tribes are to this day evident in the “Veddas” and ” Gymnosophist” tribes of Sri Lanka and India respectively.. Even their language and speech has similarities with the Hindi form… All nations stem from Mount Ararat in the mountains of ancient Armenia, and none are autocthonous on their own…
What the regionalization plan of the Venetian Club of Rome has done is to employ racial demographics in their model rather than “distribution of central points of government” according to the Biblical Prophetic model…The great image of Nebuchadnezzor, which represented the amalgamated Empires of World Government, must be remembered had four empires, not merely the Roman, as its composite parts.. The 10 final “toes/kingdoms” of the final World “Government”, which will be unified under the blasphemous doctrine of ARIANISM ( the Muslims, the Jews, the Hindus, the Buddhists, the Gothic nations, the Vandals, and even secret societies such as the Freemasons, Rosicrucians, Theosophers ( a branch of Druze Rosicrucianism) as well as Unitarian and/or Universalist sects such as the Jehovahs Witnesses and the Mormons, Quakers and Shakers, all hold the doctrines of Arianism in common, which is principally concerned with the denial of the Godhood of Jesus Christ, and the denial of the doctrine of the Trinity of the Almighty Godhead..)
The invading Gothic tribes which divided Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire from 410 AD to 476 AD, bequeathed their Arianism to the Arab tribes as well as their architecture.. The apparent differences between the East and West are just that; “apparent” only.. The time for the battle between Israel and the rest of the world; the “real Armageddon”, will come AFTER an initial period of Peace and NOT before a period of Peace, as many have predicted, and as Albert Pike and Mazzini planned ( their plan was based upon the prophecies of Paracelsus, Nostradamus, Jacob Boehme and Mother Shipton, and more recently Edgar Cayce the ” sleeping prophet” ( of Baal) with roots in the ancient Montanist Sybils of Rome and their false prophecies). The coming war is not between East and West, but between two or more factions of the same organized plot.
The nations are currently stirring and in foment, particularly in the Middle East with the Arab Spring uprisings and now with the Isil conflicts, precisely because the time is ripe for the advent of an “order” out of their mass-induced “chaos”, and they are feverishly unifying East with West with North with South, for the sole reason of reawakening the “great image” of Nebuchadnezzor by the year 2025, according to Albert Pike’s Equinoctial Procession Astrological determinations… The Mayan Doomsday Calendar falsifications concerning the year 2012 etc.etc. is a preemptive decoy and false Armageddon stageing in order to deceive “the very elect” if it were possible..
In its time, the Club of Rome “decoy” also served its purpose of dissemination and misinformation, by deflecting the true crux of future World Government away from Europe and finally the Middle East ( the World Agenda has always sought to move World Government finally to Jerusalem), yet in racial regionalization terms it remains an accurate blueprint of coming world power distribution.

We must not forget Mazzini, the Masonic co-conspirator in Europe of Albert Pike, known as ” Mazzini of the short-dagger”, the “father” and “founder” of the “Young Italy, Egypt and Turkey” movements which originated the modern states of Italy, Egypt and Turkey, for the sole aim of eventual peripheral European integration ( as we see now occuring in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean). Democracy, like Imperialism and Fascism, ALWAYS leads to totalitarianism… Under the banner of democratic emancipation the modern “ young turk” movements, particularly the “ Arab Spring uprisings”, are setting the stage for world-unification and a false-Armageddon; then a false “world-peace”, and finally the unleashed fury of social-eugenics on an unprecedented scale; the ritual murder of countless “anti-socials”, particularly Christians…..
Much has been touted over the last decade in various conspiracy circles concerning the role that the doctrine of Synarchy has played in the formation of the European Union.. Most of it has substance and is infact accurate, yet some of it stems from quarters that are themselves Neo-Platonic and Nominalistic in origin, and therefore somewhat dubious in motivation… What most mere conspiracy theories ( as opposed to conspiracy facts) fail to recognize is the telling fact that the doctrine of “Synarchy”, or “ Joint Rule” ( according to Webster’s Dictionary) has mainly stemmed from Neo-Platonic circles, due to its emphasis on social control through the use of Republican Socialism, which the Greek Philosopher Plato expounded in his famous “ Republic”..
By inference, if indeed society has been polarized by a conspiracy going back thousands of years, as our modern Comparative Philosophers claim, where Aristotelianism represents the “Active” life, and Platonism represents the “ Contemplative” life; namely, into Active and Contemplative camps; left wing and right wing; low and high; we must understand SYNARCHY as NOT consisting of EITHER a Platonic or Aristotelian bent, but of being a FUSION and SYNTHESIS ( to use Hegel’s terminology) of the twain.

The Philosopher Hegel, who was an avid student and follower of the Bohemian/ German Rosicrucian Theosopher Jakob Boehme, codified this historical “ polarized tension” as the right wing and the left wing of politics. Boehme had much earlier, @ 1612, adumbrated the very same in his “ Aurora”, the “ Mysterium Magnum” and the “ Three Principles of the Divine Essence” and other works, which both Hegel AND Louis Claude de Saint Martin ( the “reviver” of Martinez de Pasqualy’s Martinist Order of Freemasonry, whose lodges were the first to openly support and actively promote the cause of the American Revolution and the Bavarian Illuminism of 1776, the French Revolution of 1789, and the Socialist European Revolutions of 1848) later expounded in their systems. Boehme’s “ Three Principles” were the basis of Hegel’s “ Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis”; and herein lies the key to all social, political, religious, ideological, psychological control..

The cardinal Masonic motto; “ OUT OF CHAOS; ORDER”, is an ancient adage that goes back not merely to Adam Weishaupt and the Jesuit Illuminism of Bavaria, or to Hegel and Boehme, but to the time of the first heathen King/Prophet: Zoroaster/ Nimrod; the founder of ancient Babylon, and the first Ceasar, Pharaoh and Emperor of the known world. It was the trade of the HUNT that brought the wily Ethiopean Giant Nimrod/ Zoroaster into prominence and world dominion about 4100 years ago; for Nimrod was the “ great Osiris/Orion”, the “ hunter of men”, whose skill lay in the secret of conquest by an initial “division into polarized camps” and then FUSION through the final great “ synthesis”, or “ alchemical work”, namely SOCIAL SYNARCHY and Joint Rule by a cabal ( UNIONISM). This consisted of ONE Emperor-King, and ONE anointing PRIEST, and a “ Venetian-like” retinue, or Collegia, of several (TEN was the original number of supporting National Kings or Rulers, according to the number of the Kings of Phoenician/Etruscan Atlantis) of “ Philosopher-Kings”, who gave their unequivocal support and allegiance to the Emperor VIA the Priest-Prophet, or “ Pontifex Maximus”..

Synarchy is, therefore, BOTH Aristotelian AND Platonic, and cannot exist as one without the other.. In it’s idealistic form, it embodies the teachings of Socrates who, after Zoroaster, Hermes/ Hiram Abiff, and Pythagoras, was regarded as the quintessential “ Philosopher from the Heavens”, and whose mantle finally fell on the shoulders of Apollonius of Tyana: the evil magician and imposter of the first century, who in the early years of the Christian Era was compared to our Lord Jesus Christ himself, being a worker of counterfeit miracles and an advisor of Emperors and having travelled the known world taking initiations from the Hindus, the Phoenicians, The Egyptians etc.etc; much in the same vein as Simon Magus,( who is depicted as the author of “ simony” ( trading in spiritual things), in the Book of the Acts of the Apostles, written by Saint Luke), and of the Druid Priest/Prophet/ Magician “ Merlin”, in the days of Prince/King “ Arthur”, some 500 years after Apollonius of Tyana.
Apollonius, like his predecessor Hermes Trismegistus ( Hiram Abiff), travelled to Denmark where he was revered as the ” younger ODIN/ WODAN ( from whom modern European Royalty genetically stem), and from there finally crossed the Atlantic Sea to Meso-America where he was worshipped as an incarnation of the ” morning star Venus/ Lucifer”, ie, ” QUETZACOATL”, by the Mayans and allied tribes.. The Hopi tribes also worshipped him as the ” Feathered Serpent”, and an incarnation of Mercury.

It remains an undeniable fact that the present-day European Union, which was infact founded by Venetian supporters of Saint Yves d’Alveydrey’s politico-spiritistic ( and undeniably Machiavellian) “ occult” doctrine called SYNARCHY, is the precursor of the FINAL 10-Horned European Kingdom of Apocalyptic Prophecy, which once again shall straddle the ancient borders of the Roman Empire in its greatest extent, and shall be the cause for the unification of the entire globe under a single Emperor/Tyrant, who will be supported by a final Pope/False Prophet, and backed up by a Collegia of Kings drawn from the boundaries of the old Roman Empire, in imitation of the 10 Kings of ancient Babylon and the Phoenician/Etruscan Atlantis of Plato fame( as described by the Philosopher Plato in his works), and, in more recent times, patterned after the Doge of Venice’s Kingdom; his supporting Bishop, and his retinue of 10 governing Princes.

The political ecumenism of Venice, from whose bosom Machiavellianism has spread over the entire Western world ( having brought to the Western world modern Masonry and Rosicrucianism from the Middle East in the form of Druze Ismaili Theosophy during it’s various conquests and escapades from the time of the Crusades and onwards), has been the great catalyst for the unification of Europe and the revival of ancient SYNARCHIC Imperialism. From Venice; like some revived horned beast from the sea, has spread the concept of Imperial unity for the European Continent and, by extension, the entire world itself. It remains to be seen which small nation of the NORTH ( for the final Antichrist will stem from a small northern European Kingdom, and will be descended from the Jewish tribe of Dan) of Europe will in the very near future supply that “ unjust world judge” at whose coattail the Jewish nation will tug seeking revenge against her historical enemies……
In Luke 18: 1-8 we have a clear depiction of the coming relationship between the final Emperor/Antichrist of Europe, as a “ World Judge” ( Dan, in Hebrew, means a “ Judge”), and the nation of Israel represented by a widow:

1 And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint;( Rom 12:12; Eph 6:18; Col 4:2; 1Thess 5:17); 2 Saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man: 3 And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary. 4 And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; 5 Yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. 6 And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge saith. 7 And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them? (Rev 6:10); 8 I tell you that he will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth?
Though the following excerpt from Jeffrey Steinberg comes from a quarter which harbours insufficient understanding regarding the true origin and agenda of SYNARCHY, nevertheless the following information is a very accurate account, though only brief, of the intimate links between both Socialism AND Imperialism and the coming world SYNARCHY. It must be noted that Synarchy is NOT a “ Jewish Conspiracy” or “ invention”, but has its origin in the Tower-Building-World-Unifying strategies that were initiated by Nimrod/Zoroaster ( regarded as an incarnation of Saturn/ Chronos, and the inaugurator of the Babylonian ” Golden Age of Saturn/ Chronos”) over 4000 years ago, and that were inherited by a chain of willing successors that included the Jewish tribe of Dan via Hiram Abiff and the Ismaili/Druze tradition in Islam:
“…..The Pan European Union…..”

( written by Jeffrey Steinberg, and quoted from the Internet-based “ Modern History Project”):

In 1922, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi launched the Pan European Union, at a founding convention in Vienna, attended by more than 6,000 delegates. Railing against the “Bolshevist menace” in Russia, the Venetian Count called for the dissolution of all the nation-states of Western Europe and the erection of a single, European feudal state, modeled on the Roman and Napoleonic empires.

“There are Europeans,” Coudenhove-Kalergi warned, who are “naive enough to believe that the opposition between the Soviet Union and Europe can be bridged by the inclusion of the Soviet Union in the United States of Europe. These Europeans need only to glance at the map to persuade themselves that the Soviet Union in its immensity can, with the help of the [Communist] Third International, very quickly prevail over little Europe. To receive this Trojan horse into the European union would lead to perpetual civil war and the extermination of European culture. So long, therefore, as there is any will to survive subsisting in Europe, the idea of linking the Soviet Union with Pan Europe must be rejected. It would be nothing less than the suicide of Europe.”

Elsewhere, Coudenhove-Kalergi echoed the contemporaneous writings of British Fabian Roundtable devotees H.G. Wells and Lord Bertrand Russell, declaring:
“This eternal war can end only with the constitution of a world republic…. The only way left to save the peace seems to be a politic of peaceful strength, on the model of the Roman Empire, that succeeded in having the longest period of peace in the west thanks to the supremacy of his legions.”

The launching of the Pan European Union was bankrolled by the Venetian-rooted European banking family, the Warburgs. Max Warburg, scion of the German branch of the family, gave Coudenhove-Kalergi 60,000 gold marks to hold the founding convention. Even more revealing, the first mass rally of the Pan European Union in Berlin, at the Reichstag, was addressed by Hjalmar Schacht, later the Reichsbank head, Economics Minister and chief architect of the Hitler coup. A decade later, in October 1932, Schacht delivered a major address before another PanEuropa event, in which he assured Coudenhove-Kalergi and the others:
“In three months, Hitler will be in power…. Hitler will create PanEuropa. Only Hitler can create PanEuropa.”

According to historical documents, Italy’s Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini was initially skeptical about the PanEuropa idea, but was “won over” to the scheme, following a meeting with Coudenhove-Kalergi, during which, in the Count’s words, “I gave him a complete harvest of Nietzsche’s quotes for the United States of Europe…. My visit represented a shift in the behavior of Mussolini towards PanEuropa. His opposition disappeared.”

At the founding congress of the Pan European Union in Vienna, the backdrop behind the podium was adorned with portraits of the movement’s leading intellectual icons: Immanuel Kant, Napoleon Bonaparte, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Friedrich Nietzsche…..”

Albert Pike is not the only curio who has espoused astrologically ( Equinoctially) 2025 as a formative date ( we are uncertain, however, whether the ACTUAL date for World Government from Jerusalem shall be 2025, but the several years preceeding and succeeding this date are extremely pertinent to the establishment of World Rule, and will in their day declare to us the nearness of the time as well as the identity of the final Antichrist) in relation to a future World Order.. The Raelian Movement also claims that the year 2025 will see World Rule from Jerusalem, and they have already submitted plans to the Israeli Government for a “landing pad superstructure” to be constructed in Israel for the reception of “philosopher king/ ben Elohim” world leaders and their ( man-made) “flying UFO craft”…..!!!
These man-made craft are indeed manufactured at various underground bases on earth, patterned on flying craft technology that was and is used by Daemonic ” ben- Elohim” fallen-angelic life forms, which were anciently revered as the Seven Planetary and Stellar ” gods”. They are powered by Tesla Technology, which was inherited by the Serb/American Buddhist Scientist Nikola Tesla from Goethe, the German Philosopher and avid student of the Rosicrucian imperator in Germany during the early 17th century: Jacob Boehme. Tesla boasted that he had conveyed his greatest secrets simultaneously to 5 major world nations, which included the USA and Russia… Germany and France also received this Technology prior to the second World War.
Though the flying craft are indeed man-made and are powered by tapping the IONOSPHERE ( anciently known as the electro-fire of the AETHER), their prototypes are actually real Fallen-Angelic craft. The many sightings and encounters of “hybrid beings” that falsely and lyingly parade as alien and extraterrestrial occupants of UFOs, are actually the genetic products of a breeding program ON EARTH which concerns the mating of humans with semi-human-fallen-angelic ” demi-gods” or” Nephilim” ( the ” heroes” of old; the hybrid offspring of human women and the planetary and stellar ” gods”/ daemons). As well as human/nephilim breeding, hybrid Nephilim breeding with animals, reptiles, fish, birds etc.etc. ( as depicted in the ancient Ethiopic ” Book of Enoch”) is also conducted to produce reptilian-like creatures that are presented in close encounters as ” alien/ stellar evolutionary biological life-forms”.

This lie is supported by all secret societies world-wide, and it is true that military, medical and scientific organisations across the earth are conspiring in this deception for the purpose of forming the illusion of biological alien evolutionary-life beyond the earth, ( which according to the first chapters of the Book of Genesis does not exist) as well as the creation of a ” servile caste” of hybrid humanoids and bio-medically modified human ” androids” for their future ” One World Order” and government, and the inevitable ” RULING CASTE”, or ” Superman” that Nietzsche and the famous Rosicrucian tutor of Adolph Hitler, Lord Bulwer-Lytton in his book titled ” The Coming Race”, preached and promoted.
It is not, however, the Jews who are setting this stage, but the “Great White Brotherhood” of Rosicrucian/ Pythagorean ” Philosopher Kings” and their 144,000 ” Theosophical World- Servers”, which is based on Mount Hermon in Lebanon ( “laban” means “white” in Aramaic, Syriac and Hebrew).. This Druid brotherhood of Rosicrucian Pythagorean “philosopher-kings” is otherwise known as the DRUZE/ISMAILI sect of Lebanon, into which Madame Blavatsky of Theosophical Society fame, was initiated. The Druzes still hold the “golden calf of Dan” in their underground secret chambers, and lay claim to descent from the Phoenician princes of Tyre as well as the Jewish/ Israelite tribe of Dan, in the vicinity of Mount Hermon, Lebanon..
The infamous sect of the ASSASSINS ( Hashishim) were the military branch of the Ismaili sect of the Druzes of Lebanon and elsewhere. They blasphemously revere Al-Hakim as their Maitreya/ Christ/ god incarnate, and during the crusades initiated numerous Teutonic, Hospitaller and, in particular, TEMPLAR Knight Crusaders, into the Druze/ Ismaili/ Assassin Freemasonry. Through these orders of initiated Knights, and through their offspring with Druze women, the tenets of Druze Ismaili religion were conveyed to the courts of Europe, and from this source via the Knights Templars, the first modern ” Banking System” was developed throughout Europe under the aegis of the Templars and their Ismaili/ Assassin Masters in the East. This Banking Tradition was inherited by the Medici Bankers of Florence and further developed by the great ” Fugger” Banking House, and finally the Venetian ” Warburgs” of European-Union Banking fame. They ( the great Banking Houses of the World, especially Europe) remain answerable NOT to some secret Jewish Banking ” conspiracy”, but to the precepts and ” Great Invocational PLAN” of the Druze Order in the East. Lady Queensborough, in her expose on the matter of the Assassin- Templar connection, (” Occult Theocrasy”), made the following accurate observations:
“It is chronicled that several of the founders of the Templar Order were initiates in the sect of The Assassins. (pages 143 144 OCCULT THEOCRASY) Blanchard, writing of it, says : — ” During the middle ages, the most eminent warriors and noblemen of Europe entered its ranks. The Knights of the Temple became the bulwark of the Holy Land against the Saracens. France, England and other countries formed associations (Priories) of Templar Knights, each with its own Grand Master and other officers. Such great wealth was accumulated in the treasuries of the order that in the year 1185 its annual income represented a sum equal to thirty millions of dollars. The Templars were bankers and loaned money on their own terms. But wealth and prosperity naturally led to licentiousness, neglect of Templar law and in the end destruction. ” 1 Having embraced Gnosticism while in Palestine, and in touch with the sect of the Assassins, the Templar order degenerated, and some of its members, under the influence of tha t sect, were said to practice Phallicism or sex-worship and Satanism and to venerate ” The Baphomet “, the idol of the Luciferians. The crime of Sodomy was a rite of Templar initiation.”……
When Saint John Damascene declared in the last decades of the eighth century that the final Antichrist would come from the Arian Mahommetan tradition of Islam ( submission), he may indeed have foretold of the figure of their long-awaited, “ sleeping emperor”; their “ Imam Mahdi”, who would once again come forth at the end of time from his hiding place, and would put down all opposition to Islam, and establish the new “ Golden Age of Saturn”; the Ebionite/ Gnostic “ Theocratic Kingdom on Earth”, which the heretic Cerinthus prophesied of in the first century A.D…

To this day, the Ismaili Fatimid sect of the Druze await their “ sleeping emperor”, the Fatimid “ mad Caliph” Al-Hakim, who was the first to dare to attempt the full and complete annihilation of Christians in the middle east, and of Christianity itself, and to attempt to destroy all the known Christian Holy Places.. In 1005 AD he established in Cairo a “ secret Lodge” called the “ House of Knowledge”, the Dar al-Hikma, and subsequently proceeded to destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 1009, and even the Church of the Resurrection some time after. It is from this “ House of Knowledge” that various centres of secret missionary activity branched out to establish “ schools” and “ lodges” in Yemen ( Dhamar),Lebanon, Damascus, Bactria, Tibet, and eventually Germany itself through their disciple Christian Rosenkreutz.
Al-Hakim was and is venerated by the Druzes of Lebanon and environs as “ God on Earth” to this day, whose return is expected at any moment by the sect, after his mysterious disappearance without a trace near Cairo in Egypt in 1021 AD… He is regarded as an incarnation of the “ sleeping emperor” by many, who shall emerge from a mountain cave, unify Islam, and destroy the infidel… The Druzes, who call themselves “ Unitarians” and have secret Lodges and initiations identical to Hermetic Mithraism, interestingly, are a mixed race of, amongst others, Phoenician AND Jewish stock, namely the tribe of Dan, which resided in the northern parts of Palestine at the source of the Jordan and the foothills of Mount Hermon, as well as in Yemen, Sparta, and Bactria…
When the prophet Jeremiah prophesied that the Antichrist would come with his horses from the tribe of DAN ( as the early Church believed) could it be that he had in mind the “ sleeping emperor”, the “ Imam Mahdi” of Ismaili Islam? It can be, it seems, no other….. ( It is important to note that the present head of the Ismaili movement is the Aga Khan, who takes very seriously the ” Sport of Kings”, (namely, horse racing) continues this ancient association between the pythonic ” disciples of PEGASUS ( the winged horse of daemonic prophetic unction and possession), and the tradition of the Hashishim and the Druze Rosicrucian Order.
The Judeo-Shi’a sect of the Assassins or Hashishims was founded in 1090 by Hassan Sabah, a Persian, who had been initiated into Ismailism at Cairo, in the household of the Fatimite Caliph, al-Mostansir. He was known as ” The Old Man ” or rather ” The Lord of the Mountain “. His influence in Egypt having excited the envy of many, he was sent into exile. Caliph al-Mustansir’s ” vizir was a Jew named Abu Mansur Sadakah ibn Yussuf “, 1 under whose protection Hassan traversed Persia as a missionary, preaching and making proselytes, and, having seized the fortress of Alamut, on the borders of Irak and Dilem, which he called the ” House of Fortune “, he there established his rule. The history of his time is full of his name. Kings in the very centre of Europe trembled at it; his powerful arm reached everywhere.
According to Heckethorn, ” he reduced the nine degrees into which the adherents of the Lodge of Cairo were divided to seven, placing himself at the head, with title of Seydna or Sidna, whence the Spanish Cid, and the Italian Signore. The term Assassins is a 1. Von Hammer, History of the Assassins, a corruption of Hashishim, derived from Hashish (Indian hemp) with which the chief intoxicated his followers when they entered on some desperate enterprise.2 ” To regulate the seven degrees he composed the Catechism of the Order. The first degree recommended to the missionary attentively to watch the disposition of the candidate, before admitting him to the order. The second impressed it upon him to gain the confidence of the candidate, by flattering his inclinations and passions ; the third, to involve him in doubts and difficulties by showing him the absurdity of the Koran ; the fourth, to exact from him a solemn oath of fidelity and obedience, with a promise to lay his doubts before his instructor ; and the fifth, to show him that the most famous men of Church and State belonged to the secret order. The sixth, called ‘ Confirmation ‘, enjoined on the instructor to examine the proselyte concerning the whole preceding course, and firmly to establish him in it. The seventh finally, called the ‘ Exposition of the Allegory ‘, gave the keys of the sect.
” The followers were divided into two great hosts, ‘ self-sacrificers ‘ and ‘ aspirants ‘. The first, despising fatigues, dangers, and tortures, joyfully gave their lives whenever it pleased the master, who required them either to protect himself or to carry out his mandates of death. ” According to the legend ” the man selected by the lord to perform the dangerous exploit was first made drunk, and in this state carried into a beautiful valley where he was, on waking, surrounded by lovely sylph-like women who made him believe he was in Elysium ; but ere he wearied or became satiated with 2. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, p. 168 et seq. love and wine, he was once more made drunk, and in this state carried back to his own home. When his services were required, he was again sent for by the lord, who told him that he had once permitted him to enjoy paradise, and if he would do his bidding he could luxuriate in the same delights for the rest of his life. The dupe, believing that his master had the power to do all this, was ready to commit whatever crime was required of him. ”
” Several Christian princes were suspected of conniving at the deeds of the Assassins. Richard of England is one of them ; and it has been the loyal task of English writers to free him from the charge of having instigated the murder of Conrad of Montferrat… There also existed for a long time a rumour that Richard had attempted the life of the King of France through Hassan and his Assassins. The nephew of Barbarossa, Frederick II, was excommunicated by Innocent II for having caused the Duke of Bavaria to be slain by the Assassins ; and Frederick II, in a letter to the King of Bohemia, accuses the Duke of Austria of having by similar agents attempted his life. ” The corruption of the Order of The Templars which brought about its downfall has been imputed by most historians to this sect which was suppressed in 1256, when the Mongolians, led by Prince Hulagu, attacked and overthrew them.” ( Quoted from Lady Queensborough’s ” Occult Theocrasy”).
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 1099-1187
(History of the Christian Church by Philip Schaff. Volume 5: Chapter 7)
“…..Eight days after the capture of the Holy City a permanent government was established, known as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. Godfrey was elected king, but declined the title of royalty, unwilling to wear a crown of gold where the Saviour had worn a crown of thorns. He adopted the title Baron and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. The kingdom from its birth was in need of help, and less than a year after the capture of the city the patriarch Dagobert made an appeal to the “rich” German nation for reënforcements. It had a perturbed existence of less than a century, and in that time witnessed a succession of nine sovereigns.

Godfrey extended his realm, but survived the capture of Jerusalem only a year, dying July 18, 1100. He was honored and lamented as the most disinterested and devout among the chieftains of the First Crusade. His body was laid away in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, where his reputed sword and spurs are still shown. On his tomb was the inscription: “Here lies Godfrey of Bouillon, who conquered all this territory for the Christian religion. May his soul be at rest with Christ.”

With the Latin kingdom was established the Latin patriarchate of Jerusalem. The election of Arnulf, chaplain to Robert of Normandy, was declared irregular, and Dagobert, or Daimbert, archbishop of Pisa, was elected in his place Christmas Day, 1099. Latin sees were erected throughout the land and also a Latin patriarchate of Antioch. Dagobert secured large concessions from Godfrey, including the acknowledgment of his kingdom as a fief of the patriarch. After the fall of Jerusalem, in 1187, the patriarchs lived in Acre…..”
Amidst their knightly temporal victories in the East, the Teutonic, Templar, and Hospitaller Knightly orders themselves were overcome by the seductions of Islamic Ismaili/Druze Theosophical influences to such a degree that they not only intermarried with the Ismaili/ Druze population of the East, but also embraced their secret GNOSIS and rites of initiation, and carried them back home to the West with them, shortly after their demise at the hands of Suleyman the Magnificent.

“….The Christian occupation of Palestine did not bring with it a reign of peace. The kingdom was torn by the bitter intrigues of barons and ecclesiastics, while it was being constantly threatened from without. The inner strife was the chief source of weakness. The illegitimate offspring of the Crusaders by Moslem women, called pullani, were a degenerate race, marked by avarice, faithlessness, and debauchery. The monks settled down in swarms over the country, and the Franciscans became the guardians of the holy places…..” ( History of the Christian Church by Philip Schaff. Volume 5: Chapter 7).

The Druzes, who are descended from the remnants of the Jewish tribe of Dan that had intermarried with the Phoenician nation, particularly Tyre, to this day in their underground crypts and secret chambers, hold in their possession the “ golden calf of Dan”, and further the teachings of Cerinthus and the Gnostics..


The Fact:—Persistent local rumor continues to associate “calf worship” with the Druze religion,…….. That there is jealously guarded and hidden from the uninitiate eye, in one of their leading places of seclusion (khalwah), of which there are about forty in the Lebanon, some gold figure of a calf or bull inside of a silver box has been almost ascertained beyond doubt. A high Druze sheikh has practically admitted in a recent interview the existence of such a box. Paul Casanova reports in the Revue archéologique the discovery of a baked clay figure of a ram or sheep with the name of al-Ḥakīm inscribed on it. Passages in the tracts of Ḥamzah and Bahā’-al-Dīn referring in a derogatory manner to the “calf” and the “worshipers of the calf” are not lacking, but one passage in the epistle entitled al-Asrār (Secrets or Mysteries) has clear and unmistakable reference to “the box in which is the figure of the incarnation of our Lord.” …..If and when the calf cult is proved in the case of the Druze religion, some connection will then be sought with earlier cognate Israelitish and Egyptian cults. ( Main Sources: W. B. Seabrook, “The Golden Calf of the Druzes,” Asia (New York), March, 1926. See also Revue de l’Orient, X, 238.)….
Madam Blavatsky, the foundress of the modern “ Theosophical Society” ( A branch of the Rosicrucian Order and Movement) claims to have been initiated into the Druze religion…
Mme. Blavatsky wrote, in 1878:

“…..I belong to the secret sect of the Druzes of the Mount Lebanon and passed a long life [time?] among dervishes, Persian mullahs, and mystics of all sort. — Theos., LII, 628, Aug. 1931….”
Christian Rosencreutz, the founder of Rosicrucianism in Germany during the 14th century, was also initiated into Druze Ismailism at Damcar in Yemen ( where also exists a large community claiming descent from the tribe of Dan, according to the travel journals of Reverend Joseph Wolff)…Robert Fludd, Francis Bacon, Jakob Boehme, and somewhat earlier Paracelsus ( the founder of modern medicine) were famous early leaders of Rosicrucianism in England and Germany. ( see Frances Yates’ works on the “ Rosicrucian Enlightenment” of the early 17th century). The Hermetic tradition in Islam was inherited by the Druze Ismaili sect, from which influence modern Western Freemasonry takes its rise, via the various medieval orders of Crusader Knights. Freemasonry worships Hiram Abiff, the “ builder of the Temple of Solomon” ( as recorded in Scripture); who is none other than Hermes Trismegistus. ( Please refer to the Rosicrucian William Wynn Wescott in his “ History of Rosicrucianism” for confirmation of this correlation between Hiram Abiff ( who was of the tribe of Dan in the region of Naphtali), and the famous Hermes Trismegistus).

The reason why Mount Hermon/ Lebanon is so strategically important to the secret societies of the world, is that, according to the Ethiopic Book of 1 Enoch ( which is quoted by Jude in the New Testament as authentic), the Angels that “ fell from their first estate” prior to the Deluge of Noah’s days, formed a “ pact” and took the “ oath” of allegiance against Almighty God and His Christ on Mount Hermon, and it was on Mount Hermon that the daughters of men first intermarried with the fallen angels/ daemons, who took on physical forms and were able to propagate AFTER their fall from the Heavenly Realm, with the daughters of men.
This primordial “ descent of the daemons ( anciently styled “ gods” by the heathen)” gave birth to a race of Nephilim, or “ heroes and giants”, who wreaked havoc with the inhabitants of the known world prior to the Deluge of Noah, and also after that.. The last of these Nephilim were destroyed during King David’s time ( Goliath being one of them). Since approximately the time of the Tunguska event in 1908, these fallen angelic daemons have conspired with medical, military organizations and scientific esoteric Rosicrucian cliques throughout the world, for the purpose of re-enactment of the breeding programs between fallen angels and human women that took place just prior to the Flood of Noah..
It is reminiscent of the work of the Golden Dawn Templar Order ( sexual magic/ Tantric Yogic sex), which seeks the production of the ” Moonchild” called ENDYMION ( note that ENDYMION in Greek numerals equals 666, according to the rules of Gematria), who would rule the world according to the tenets of Alistair Crowley, particularly the blasphemous antinomian adage of ” do what thou wilt”. This breeding program is replicated on the purely human level as well. The basis of World, especially European, Royal House Intermarriage and Noble lineage perpetuation, in the production of the final World Emperor/ Antichrist, is a ” mirror image Tantric process” that world Royal families engage in to produce the final ( though purely human) ENDYMION Antichrist..
Mount Zion is known also in Scripture as the “ congregation of the North”, whereas, according to the secret lodges of Phoenician/ Danite Lebanon, this Biblical expression refers NOT to Mount Zion ( Moriah), but to Mount Hermon, which geographers in olden days called “SION” ( see Deuteronomy 4:48 for Biblical confirmation of this fact).. This difference is not one of mere semantics, but is vital when considering the origin of the notorious “ PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED ELDERS OF SION” ( the “ Priory of SION”, ie; Mount Hermon in Lebanon; the headquarters of the Druze sect and Masonry). The real authors of these Protocols ( which are a genuine document though NOT authored by the Jewish Sanhedrin nor the Zionists. Zionism is the “ false flag” secret societies use to deflect discovery of the Druze/ Druid origin of the “ Protocols”) are the “ Elders” of the Druze Cult; the head organ of the “ Great White ( Laban) Brotherhood” of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky/ Theosophical Society fame.
Other Centres of this ” Great White Brotherhood” throughout the world include SHAMBALLAH ( the ancient city of BALKH in Bactria, the former kingdom of Nimrod/ Zoroaster, which is the first city on earth ever built by the children of Cain the fratricide; namely, the city called ” Enoch”. This ” Enoch” is not to be confused with the ” Prophet Enoch” who was NOT of the line of Cain, but that of Seth, the son of Adam. The foundation-stone of this city was recovered after the deluge and is revered worldwide as the ” stone of destiny”, or the satanic ” lia fail” of grail fame.
Another centre is ofcourse AGHARTI, known in the Norse Countries as ASGARD, the home of the AESIR ( in ancient Assyria). The Gobi Desert, the Himalayas, the Andes, are, amongst virtually EVERY mountain range that exists on earth, home to UFO manufacturing bases. Other centres and Druze schools of Rosicrucianism may be found amongst the descendants of the Danites in Yemen ( The Tayyabit tribes near Damcar in Yemen), as well as the ancient territories of the SPARTANS, who were a colony of the tribe of Dan as well. The Druid ” brotherhood” of the West, and the ancient Essenes of Palestine, and the Therapeutae of Egypt and the Buddhist Pythagoreans, are ALL predecessors of the final Theosophic Religious Rosicrucian Synthesis as embodied in the Druze Creed and system…

The ancient name for Mount Hermon was SION, as opposed to “ZION”, the hill of Jerusalem.. The protocols of SION ( NOT “Zion”) are the genuine issue of the Druze/Ismaili Freemasonry, with origins in the Israelite tribe of Dan, and NOT the Jewish Rabbis and Sanhedrin in general. It is an interesting fact of Medieval history that the Crusader Knights ( particularly the Templars, Teutonics and Hospitallers) intermarried with the Druze women, and received the Druze/Hashishim initiations before transplanting them to Europe… The famed “Priory of Sion” ( note the spelling) was a secret DRUZE order of Knighthood…

The Protocols were given through these channels to modern Masonry in the west. They harken back to the builder of the Temple of Solomon in the 11th century B.C.; Huram Abiff, anciently known and revered as Hermes Trismegistos, the builder of Solomon’s Temple as well as the Circular Temple of Hercules Melkhart at Tyre ( the original of the Arthurian Camelot and Round Table), who travelled finally to Denmark ( the oldest Royal House in Europe) with a colony of Phoenician-Danites bringing with him the worship of the Phoenician Hercules Melkhart ( known in Scripture as MAOZ, or MAHUZZIM, and amongst the Celts as MELIK ( King) ART ( Arthur)), and from there ( he was known in Scandinavia and Germany as ODIN or WODAN and WOTAN, amongst the Latins as Mercury, and in Greece as Hermes, the Egyptian THOTH) ” sexually inseminated” all the Royal Houses of Europe with Phoenician/Canaanite/Israelite blood, for the purpose of producing, in the final days just prior to Jesus Christ’s second coming ( at the conclusion of 6000 years of universal history), the bloodstock of the ” Final Euro-World Emperor”, who would be of the Tribe of Dan, as well as of Tyrian/Phoenician stock.
This ” Final Emperor” would be crowned by the final PONTIFEX MAXIMUS POPE of ROME, who, turning his back on the Roman Catholic Church to assume the reigns of the World Council of Churches and the Ecumenical Movement, will allow Rome to be ” burned in one day”, and have its territories and assets divided amongst the victorious Arian, Islamic and Reformed Protestant countries of Europe.
Apollonius of Tyana in the 1st century AD, otherwise known as the ” younger ODIN/ WODAN” and ” Quetzalcoatl” in Meso-America, reinvigorated the new round of Danite ” insemination” in Europe from Denmark as his predecessor Hiram Abiff had done, thereby founding the modern European Royal Bloodlines from Denmark..
The Protestant Reformation, which was instigated and supported by the Rosicrucian Order with directives from the Great White Brotherhood of the Druzes, will be the main driver, partnered by Islam, of the coming ” Burning of Rome”: the destruction of Roman Catholicism and the abdication of the Papacy in favour of the World Council of Churches, or an equivalent organization with Ecumenical roots and Universal appeal.
The Reformation was infact a call to European Union, under ONE Emperor, whose right-hand “ prophet” would eventually be a REFORMED POPE; most likely of a Carmelite and/or Franciscan persuasion. The Carmelite Order, which claimed direct descent from the Prophet Elijah at Mount Carmel in Palestine ( though in reality more likely to be descended from the opponents of Elijah; the “ Priests of Baal” which also resided at Mount Carmel and environs), has a strong history of Mysticism, and particularly of the Montanist Sybilline type due to its popularity amongst Carmelite nuns. The main reasons why one might suppose a Carmelite Pope or a Franciscan Pope may serve in the cause of European Union, concern the historical affinity between the Lutheran and Reformed “ mystical traditions”, which held in great esteem the old Carmelite ( and Rhineland Dominican) mystics, such as John of the Cross and Theresa of Avila, as “ proto-Reformers”, and would very easily accept an Ecumenical Pope of Rome from the Carmelite order for this reason; whereas a Franciscan Pope would not only Ecumenically unite the Protestant/ Reformed sects due to Francis of Assisis’ disciples’ hatred of the abuses of the Papacy ( they actually styled, like the Waldenses, the Pope “ Antichrist”, and sought to Reform the Papacy on the same lines as Pope Gregory the Great, Luther ,Calvin and Zwingli), would offer a rallying call to unity to all the doctrinal heirs of the Franciscan Tertiary tradition, who were hoping for the “ Third Age of the Spirit” as prophesied by the mentor of King Richard Lionheart: the Calabrian false prophet Joachim of Fiore.
Richard Lionheart, who was tutored by Joachim of Fiore, was the bridge between the Druze order of the Assassins in the East and the Franciscan ” proto-Reformation” Movement in Calabria, Italy, in the West. The Franciscan Tertiaries were an order of Franciscan laymen and laywomen who were intimately associated with the Beghard and Beguine tradition in Western Europe.. Joachim of Fiore’s Franciscan descendants, the Anabaptists, (though the later “ Radical AnaBaptists” of Thomas Munzer fame resorted to extreme violence), absorbed the entire Franciscan theological and political perspective but, contrary to Luther and Calvin, and like their predecessors the Franciscan Spiritual Order, did so NOT by the sword of “ Caesar” as with Luther and Calvin, but under the banner of “ peace” ( the rainbow). It was under the banner of the rainbow that the first Swiss and German AnaBaptist “ revolt” took place, and it has been of late revived as the ” Rainbow Alliance” and ” New Age Movement” of the mid 20th century.
The historical evidence for the descent of the AnaBaptists from the Franciscans is ably demonstrated more recently by Dr. Peter C. Erb ( an AnaBaptist minister in Canada, historian and theologian) as well as during the early eighteenth century by the formative historical works of Gottfried Arnold ( who was likewise favourable to the Franciscans and the various AnaBaptists, in opposition to the various state churches of the day)..

The purpose of the Papacy was, and still is, at least since the time of the Emperor Constantine in the early 4th century AD, to serve as the Ecumenical “ BRIDGE” ( the Popes to this day style themselves by the Roman pagan term “ Pontifex Maximus”, which means the “Great Bridge Builder”) between ALL the so-called “ scattered brethren”; a term which the Papacy uses for their version of Replacement Theology ( which the Reformers, particularly Calvin, also embraced), since “ scattered brethren” is in their minds simply another term for the “ scattered tribes of Israel”…

So logically, since the Reformers as well as the Radical AnaBaptists believed that the Jews as a Nation were done with prophetically, and since in their minds the Church had taken over all prophecy concerning temporal rule in recent history, it was almost inevitable that their wayward assumptions would lead to a total “ spiritualization” of the promises to the literal Jews, and a search for the “ scattered lost tribes of Israel” amongst the so-called “ blessed Reformed Nations” of Europe, became the great “ Ecumenical Pursuit” of both the Papacy ( which the Reformers did not reject as long as a Reformed Pope sat on the throne of the Apostle Peter) AND the Reformers.. In this quest even the earlier Jewish expositors Rashi and Maimonides, appeared to lend their weighty support, by giving credence to the falsehood of the supposed location of the scattered tribes of Israel in Europe, among particularly, the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic-Latin-Aryan-British nations which eventually populated the region of the Western Roman Empire .. This false teaching that the ” Aryan-Anglo-British-Celtic” race is of descent from the 10 lost tribes of Israel ( when infact they comprise the majority of the 10 toed kingdom of the Beast/ Antichrist), is almost universally supported within Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, the Protestant Orange Masonic Order, the Pentecostal andf Charismatic sects, and contemporary as well as past Protestant and Evangelical Biblical Exegetes alike.

The Reformed Countries are currently reviving the ancient empire and claims of Caesar on the continent of Europe, whereas Caesar’s right-hand-man; the Pope of Rome who presents himself as the Ecumenical Bridge Builder and speaks and looks like a lamb but is a ravening wolf, is hell-bent on causing the entire world to worship the coming world emperor from the Jewish tribe of Dan… The game is real and the stakes high for the children of disobedience, whether they style themselves Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, Taoist or otherwise.. The end of the game is European Revival and, by extension, world union; as it was in the “ days of Noah” before and after the great Deluge..
To recapitulate the facts:

a) The Papacy, being of Montanist descent, is the great “ False Prophet” of prophecy, and has employed Replacement Theology as a tool to INGATHER and REVIVE the 10-horned BEAST of Europe, by universal appeal to the so-called “ 10 European scattered tribes ( sects) of Israel” according to the teachings of Rashi and Maimonides, and according to the influence of the Islamic Ismaili DRUZE Freemasonry, which the Crusaders conveyed back to Europe during the early middle ages. The Popes are not to be confused with the Roman Universal Church and her daughters ( the state churches and various sects and denominations), over which they merely preside.
The Roman Universal Church and Entity was known as the “ Whore of Babylon” by Bishop Hippolytus of Porto ( near Rome) in the late 2nd century/ early 3rd century AD, and openly delineated as such in his excellent treatise “ On Christ and Antichrist”. As the title “ Pontifex Maximus” in the ancient Pagan Roman vocabulary intimated the office of the “ Prophet of Rome and the Whole World” ( the great social “ Bridge Builder” of the known world), so it is that the Roman Pontiffs must be regarded in this light as the great supporters of Imperial Rule; that of Ceasar, and are to be understood as fulfilling the prophecies of the great “ False Prophet” which would eventually anoint, and “ cause the whole world to worship the Beast ( Antichrist/ Emperor of Europe);

b) The Reformers, including Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, as well as the AnaBaptists, did not actually “ Reform” Rome and the Church, as we all know, but enacted the process of revival of the Roman Empire THROUGH the abuse of Theology ( particularly the NOMINALISM of William of Ockham) in order to get the popular vote and transfer political power back from the Papacy to the Emperor, yet simultaneously paved the way for the absorption of all European nations into some form of Reformed allegiance in the expectation that the FINAL Pope will be of Reformed-Carmelite-Franciscan persuasion;

c) The Jewish people of Europe are indeed Jews, and NOT Khazars as some of the National Socialist Conspiracy Theories allege ( based upon the writings of Arthur Koestler, particularly the book titled “ The Thirteenth Tribe”) and have claimed, and that only the leading tribe of DAN is actively cooperating in the great “ mystery of iniquity” which seeks to enthrone one of their own as the new European and World Emperor, who will place his final seat at Jerusalem and will be eventually received by the Jewish Nation and the disciples of the Ebionite/Gnostic Cerinthus as their false promised kingdom-building Messiah, in imitation of the failed attempts to this effect by the favourite son of Rabbi Akiba ( early 2nd century AD), namely, the “ false messiah”: Bar Cochba, the “ son of a star”…….
The Apocalypse of Saint John sums the matter up succinctly:

(Revelation Chapter 13):

1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea,[note that Mercury, in Hermetic emblemata, is depicted as being “ born from the sea” ] having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.( Dan 7:20; Rev 17:3); 2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. 3 And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. 4 And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him? (Rev 18:18); 5 And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. (Rev 11:2); 6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. 7 And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. (Dan 7:21; Rev 11:7); 8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. (Exod 32:33; Phil 4:3; Rev 3:5; Rev 17:8; Rev 20:12; Rev 21:27); 9 If any man have an ear, let him hear. 10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. (Gen 9:6; Matt 26:52; Rev 14:12);

11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.( Rev 11:7); 12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. (Rev 13:3; Rev 19:20); 13 And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,[ note that Thor, or Jupiter, is regarded by the ancients to preside over all prophecy AND to cause “ fire to come down from heaven.The Priest of Rome, the Pontifex Maximus, was a priest of Jupiter. ] (2Thess 2:9; Rev 16:14); 14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live. (Deut 13:1; Matt 24:24; Rev 16:14; Rev 19:20); 15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. (Rev 19:20); 16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:( Rev 19:20); 17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.( Rev 14:11); 18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. (Rev 17:9);
” The Word ( Dabar, Logos) became Flesh” is true of only one historical Incarnation; that of Jesus Christ, whereas the Philosophers, Theosophers and Rosicrucians sought a cyclic Incarnation of Hermes/Mercury/Odin ( the Spirit of the Antichrist) as their counterfeit ” mirific word/logos” false world savior. Christ Jesus, who, though pure and innocent, Vicariously died for humanity on the Cross at Calvary outside the walls of Jerusalem near 2000 years ago, is THE only ” mediator between God and Man”, but certainly not an ” intermediatory angelic being or psychopomp” as the heathen philosophers taught of the daemon Hermes/Mercury/Odin. There is no other name given under Heaven by which we may be saved, except the name of Christ Jesus: Almighty Emmanuel, and God-with-us Incarnate…”
MARANATHA… for the Lord Jesus Christ draweth nigh….
This article on the history of European Rosicrucianism ( which was descended from Druze Ismaili Rosicrucianism) may help in understanding that Rosicrucianism developed and controls the externalization of the Grand Lodge of Freemasonry in England in 1717, as well as the Illuminati of Bavaria in 1776. The article is not correct in stating that the last Grand Master of Rosicrucianism died in 1750… They continue to this day, and the  Grand Master  also controls the Freemasonic Lodges and the Bavarian Illuminati WORLDWIDE.. They founded the Protestant Reformation, particularly the Calvinist Puritan and Lutheran streams, as well as the AnaBaptist and Socinian ( Unitarian) and Universalist movements. In 1700, as confirmed by R.Roach in his ” Imperial Standard of the Messiah Triumphant”, they founded what was to become the Charismatic/ Pentecostal Movement via the agency of the Wesleyan ” Holiness” movement, and with the political support of William of Orange and his legacy. Richard Roach was a member of the ” Philadelphian Society” ( as was the tutor of John and Charles Wesley, the famed English Evangelical Rosicrucian, William Law) of Jane Lead and John Pordage in the 17th century; the successors in England of the German Rosicrucian Jacob Boehme.

Their modern successors and offspring were not only to be discovered in the ” Theosophical Society” of Colonel Olcott and Mme Blavatsky, but particularly the ” Jacob Boehme Society” of Charles Arthur Muses during the 1950s in the USA, who counted amongst their members and associates the likes of C.S. Lewis, Buz Aldrin, Arthur Young ( inventor of the Bell Helicopter), and virtually every influential quantum scientist and science fiction notable in the western world. Charles Arthur Muses’ successor was Jose Arguelles, the Mayan Exegete and founder of the ” Harmonic Convergence” of 1987.

The following article was penned in 1797, and reproduced in Lady Queensborough’s ” Occult Theocrasy” ( an early expose)….

Speculation has been rife as to the origin of the Rosicrucians, and the many fables and legends connected with the subject have but little historical value. Owing to the great discrepancy between the information contained in the following article and that given in the more modern editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, it has been deemed advisable to reprint the former. (See Enc. Brit., 3rd Edition, Vol. 16, year MDCCXCVII (1797) Edinburgh. Bell and Macfarquhar.)

” Rosicrucians, a name assumed by a sect or cabal of hermetical philosophers ; who arose, as it has been said, or at least became first taken notice of in Germany, in the beginning of the fourteenth century. They bound themselves together by a solemn secret, which they all swore inviolably to preserve : and obliged themselves, at their admission into the order, to a strict observance of certain established rules. They pretended to know all sciences, and chiefly medicine : whereof they published themselves the restorers. They pretended to be masters of abundance of important secrets, and, among others, that of the philosopher’s stone : all which they affirmed to have received by tradition from the ancient Egyptians, Chaldeans, the Magi, and Gymnosophists.

They have been distinguished by several names, accommodated to the several branches of their doctrine. Because they pretend to protect the period of human life, by means of certain nostrums, and even to restore youth, they were called Immortals ; as they pretended to know all things, they have been called Illuminati; and because they have made no appearance for several years, unless the sect of Illuminated which lately started up on the continent derives its origin from them [ THE BAVARIAN ILLUMINATI], they have been called the Invisible Brothers. Their society is frequently signed by the letters F. R. C. which some among them interpret fratres roris cocti; it being pretended that the matter of the philosopher’s stone is dew concocted, exalted, etc. Some, who are no friends to free-masonry, make the present flourishing society of free-masons a branch of Rosicrucians ; or rather the Rosicrucians themselves, under a new name or relation, viz. as retainers to building. And it is certain, there are some free-masons who have all the characters of Rosicrucians ; but how the aera and original of masonry, and that of Rosicrucianism here fixed from Nadaeus, who has written expressly on the subject, conflict, we leave others to judge Notwithstanding the pretended antiquity of the Rosicrucians, it is probable that the alchemists, Paracelsists, l or fire-philosophers,[ ZOROASTRIANS] who spread themselves through almost all Europe about the close of the 16th century, assumed about this period the obscure and ambiguous title of Rosicrucian brethren, which commanded at first some degree of respect, as it seemed to be borrowed from the arms of Luther, which were a cross placed upon a rose.

But the denomination 1. Followers of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541). evidently appears to be derived from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, says Motheim, as many imagine of the two words rosa and crux, which signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these words, and the Latin ros, which signifies dew At the head of these fanatics were Robert Fludd, an English physician, Jacob Behmen, and Michael Mayer ; but if rumour may be credited, the present Illuminated have a head of higher rank.

The common principles, which serve as a kind of centre of union to the Rosicrucian society, are the following : They all maintain that the dissolution of bodies, by the power of fire, is the only way by which men can arrive at true wisdom, and come to discern the first principles of things. They all acknowledge a certain analogy and harmony between the powers of nature and the doctrines of religion ; and believe that the Deity governs the kingdom of grace by the same laws with which he rules the kingdom of nature ; and hence they are led to use chemical denominations to express the truth of religion. They all hold that there is a sort of divine energy, or soul, diffused through the frame of the universe, which some call the argheus, others the universal spirit, and which others mention under different appellations. They all talk in the most superstitious manner of what they call the signatures of things, of the power of the stars, over all corporeal beings, and their particular influence upon the human race, of the efficacy of magic, and the various ranks and orders of demons — These demons they divide into two orders, sylphs and gnomes. ” 2 2. Whereas the article mentions only two kinds of demons tne Rose Croix are credited with recognizing four different species accredited to each of the four elements : Earth spirits 77 Gnomes, Fire spirits — Salamanders, Water spirits — Undines, Air spirits — Sylphs.

This article having been written in 1747 only hinted at what the Rose Croix might have been. Subsequent research upon the organization of the Fraternity, its tenets and its achievements, shows it to have been a medium for the propagation of Gnosticism and a centre for political activities. Before it conquered Freemasonry, which was officially instituted in 1717, many names were already associated intimately with this esoteric organization. Among others were Faustus Socinius, Cesare Cremonini, Michael Maier, Valentin Andrea, Thomas Vaughan (Philaletes), Charles Blount, Frederich Helvetius, Richard Simon, and Theophilus Desaguliers. It is claimed that Faustus Socinius, named after Faustus, the Manichee, nephew of Lelius Socinius, whose teacher was Camillo Renato, was an intimate of Rosicrucianism and the founder of the Socinians. Catholics and Protestants alike opposed Faustus Socinius in his efforts to graft a secret cult on the existing orthodox religions, and in 1598, the people of Cracovia, revolted by his doctrines, pillaged his house, burned his books and manuscripts and almost massacred their author. He had sworn hatred to the church and busied himself in founding an association the aims of which were to be subversive to all its teachings, and two years before his death, he was obliged to take refuge from his enemies with one Abraham Blonski.

The membership of the Rose Croix was composed of Alchemists, Astrologers and Spiritists whose quest was the search for a process for transmuting base metals into gold and the secret of life. To most of these ” generation was the root principle of Achemy. ” 3 The order of the Rose Croix revealed itself in 1614 3. Charlotte Fell Smith, John Dee. with the appearance of two books, Fama Fraternitatis and the Confessio attributed to Valentin Andrea giving the legend of the travels of Christian Rosenkreutz. According to Charles T. MacClenachan 33°, Historian, Grand Lodge State of New York, this same legend had appeared as the work of Raymond Lulli, who died in 1315. In this legend, translated into English in 1616 by Robert Fludd, a symbolic personage called Christian Rosenkreuz, destined to live 106 years on earth, travelled in the East where he studied the Cabala and, on his return to his native Germany, he revealed to three disciples the secret of secrets, the great secret of theosophy. 4 Finally, he retired to a cave to finish his days in solitude, dying in 1484 at the age of 106. His disciples came, enshrouded him and disappeared.

His grave was to be unknown for six times twenty years at the end of which period it was to become the hearth of the light destined to illuminate the world at the time appointed by God. In 1604, chance brought men to this cave. On entering, great was their surprise to find it resplendent with a bright light. It contained an altar bearing upon a copper plate the inscription ” Living, I reserved this light for my grave. ” One mysterious figure was accompanied by this epigram ” Never vacant “. A second figure ” The Yoke of the Law “. A third figure ” The Liberty of the Gospels “. A fourth ” The Glory of the Whole God “. The hall still contained lamps burning without fuel, mirrors of various shapes and boks. Upon the wall was written ” In six times twenty years I will be discovered “. The prophecy was fulfilled, adds the fable, by way of conclusion. • Fire, alias Kundalini, alias sex-force.

The movement was greatly furthered by the impulse given it when, after the appearance of the Fama Fraternitatis and Confessio, a German Alchemist, Michael Maier, an English Physician, Robert Fludd and a Pietist, Julius Sperber, wrote treatises in defence or explanation of the order of the Rose Croix. It has repeatedly been stated that Michael Maier, who frequently visited England, was a friend of Robert Fludd. He was the author of Themis Aurea and Silentium post Clamores, both Rosicrucian works. His political influence may be judged from his career. Physician to Rudolf II, he was created by him Count of the Palatinate, and acted as adviser to his sovereign. In 1609, Rudolf II issued an Imperial Charter granting religious liberty to the Moravians.5 Masonic authorities state that Maier, as a Rosicrucian, changed his official title to Summus Magister, Sovereign Master, which is that used by all his successors and borne by the principal Socinian Rose-Croix documents, dating from the time of Faustus Socinius to that of Johann Wolff, which are preserved in the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg. (That is the Supreme Jewish Lodge secretly affiliated to International Masonry.)

In his book Themis Aurea, written in 1616 and 1617 and printed in 1618, Maier, the Grand Master, refers to a resolution passed at a meeting in 1617 in which it was formally agreed that the Brotherhood of the Rose Croix must maintain the strictest secrecy for a hundred years. On October 31 1617, the Convention of the Seven at Magdebourg had indeed agreed to qualify its members during the ensuing one hundred years 5. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. Art. Hussites.,of secrecy as ” The Invisibles “. It had renewed its oath to destroy the church of Jesus Christ and had decreed that, in the year 1717, it would transform the fraternity into an association which could carry on a more or less open propaganda, while adopting such meassures of prudence as might then be deemed expedient by the leaders of the sect. Finally, the Seven adopted definitely, as being sufficiently original to appeal to the popular imagination, Valentin Andrea’s curious story of the Rose Croix which had been secretly printted in Venice towards 1613. Robert Fludd was the author of Tractatus Apologeticus (1617) and Clavis Philosophiae et Alchymiae (1633). He was greatly helped in the foundation of the Rose Croix order in England by Francis Bacon, author of Nova Atlantis 6 (1624). Valentin Andrea to whom, as we have seen, are ascribed the works Fama and Confessio, as well as Chemycal Nuptials, had, in 1640, been appointed preacher to the Duke of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel, who was soon to make him his chaplain. To those who know the important part played by a Duke of Brunswick during the French Revolution, this entrance of the Brunswick family into the sect is very interesting.

As a Rosicrucian, Andrea was the teacher of Comenius (Amos Kominsky), who frequently visited England during his mysterious political career. Bishop of a Moravian community, Comenius was the leader of the Moravian Brethren, a sect pledged to achieve the extermination of the Catholic church and which, being considered heretical, was also suspected of practising secret satanism. The Moravians were imbued with Socinianism, that is the doctrine of Lelius 6. Wittemans, Histoire des Rose Croix, p. 71., Socinius which had been spread among them by his. nephew Faustus Socinius who had found refuge in Moravia when persecuted by the Church. Their link with Rosicrucianism had already been established in the person of the pietist, Julius Sperber, who was also one of their leaders. When Kominsky was persecuted, he first went to London in 1641 and, early the next year, went to Sweden where he was granted refuge and help by the powerful Swedish Minister, Count Axel Oxenstiern, himself a Rosicrucian adept and protector of another initiate, Ludwig van Geer from Holland.

The combination of the pursuit of alchemy and hermeticism with political aims was frequently evidenced even before the official appearance of Rosicrucianism. The influence of adepts on the destinies of nations was immense. To Queen Elizabeth, the advice of John Dee, her alchemist, was always considered in matters affecting national policy, and to Dee, his crystal gazer, Edward Kelly, was indispensable as a medium. 7 Ludwig van Geer, (one of the Seven present at Magdebourg) had settled in Sweden and had won over the chancellor, Count Axel Oxenstiern, then the real regent, in view of the minority of Queen Christina. A great industrialist of Dutch birth, with a colossal fortune made in the manufacture of cannon, he had become a Baron, and as owner of 20 ships of the Swedish fleet, he was an indispensable man. Another striking Rosicrucian figure was Thomas Vaughan, (Eugenius Philaletes) not to be confused with his pupil, George Starkey, known as Irenius Philaletes. It is said that it was Thomas Vaughan who, inspired 7. Charlotte Fell Smith, op. cit., p. 182., by the writings of Nick Stone, conceived the idea of subverting to the ambition of the sect to which he belonged, the guild of the Freemasons which, owing to its universal character, lent itself better than any other to the realization of his project. Nick Stone was one of the Seven of the Convention of Magdebourg. As an architect, belonging to the guild of the Freemasons, he had helped Inigo Jones, the grand-master of the English Lodges which, at this period, were nonsectarian. On the other hand, as a Rosicrucian he had grasped, in the Luciferian sense, the idea given by Faustus Socinius, and he had composed, for the nine grades of the fraternity, rituals which the chiefs declared remarkable. His ritual of the eighth degree (Magister Templi) was really Satanic. Thomas Vaughan, struck by these manuscripts wondered whether it would be possible to extend the teaching of the Rose Croix to all ” accepted masons “, who were then admitted to the lodges in an honorary capacity ; the Freemasons received in their guild, under the name of ” accepted masons “, peers and men of letters or professional men, as well as rich bourgeois, who enhanced the brilliancy of their meetings and patronized their entertainments. These honorary members were their protectors and benefactors. 8 Vaughan believed that this element, gifted with certain intellectual qualities, would lend itself better to the propagation of the principles of occult Socinianism than the workers of the Fellow Craft, and, having made up his mind that this was the solution of the problem, he hastened to put it into practice. 8. This is still customary. Many of the English Guilds of today such as the Goldsmiths have honorary members who, for attending their dinners receive a box of chocolates and £3 in cash.

Some brothers of the Rose Croix were already mingling with the Freemasons. Among the members of the Warrington Lodge were Richard Penkett, James Collier, Richard Sankey, Henry Littler, John Ellam and Hugh Brewer and in London, the Whartons and their friends had slipped into a lodge as ” accepted masons “. Thomas Vaughan encouraged them to spread the principles of Socinius. Finally, at a meeting on the 14th May 1643, he announced that their desultory efforts at restrained proselytizing should be supplanted by a definite programme of entering the guild lodges with the object of using them as instruments to an end. The account of this meeting of the 14th May 1643, is given in full in the Memoirs of Philaletes and the whole plan of the Freemasonry of today is therein revealed. So blended are truth and fiction in the active career of this adventurous adept that Vaughan must always remain one of the most mysterious characters of Rosicrucianism. ” When the plague of 1665 drove the Court from London to Oxford, Thomas Vaughan went thither with his patron (the king) and, a little later, took up his residence with the Rector of Albury, the Rev. Sam. Kem, at whose house, on February 27th of that year, he was killed by an explosion in the course of chemical experiments. ” 9 His work in Masonry however has remained as his monument.

Together with Elias Ashmole, pupil of Rabbi Solomon Frank and protege of James Pagitt, Thomas Vaughan worked up the masonic system of the first three degrees. These degrees, those of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason were 9. A. E. “Waite, The Works of Thomas Vaughan, Biographical Preface, p. xii., devised for the temptation of the masses, while outside and above them continued the former secret system of the Rose Croix, four degrees of which belonging to the Gold Cross were known as : 1st, Zelator ; 2nd, Theoricus; 3rd, Practicus ; and 4th, Philosophus; teaching merely the principles of alchemy, while the degrees of the Rose Croix were : 5th, Adeptus Minor; 6th, Adeptus Major ; 7th, Ademptus Exemptus, 8th, Magister Templi and 9th, Magus. Contemporaneous with the evolution of free thought against revealed religion broke the revolution against civil authority plunging England into the throes of civil war, Oliver Cromwell was successful at the head of the Parliament troops while Charles I was everywhere betrayed by men on whom he relied. Henry Blount10 was among the traitors accruing to Cromwell after the battle of Edgehill; at least the defeat of the king was his pretext, for treason was everywhere premeditated.

The word of order was given by the Rose Croix, which had spread rapidly among the Puritans. The year 1644 ended with the destruction of the Royal power, and Feb. 9, 1649, the day on which the head of Charles I fell at Whitehall, consummated its ruin. The Royal power had in fact been wrecked when the troops of Parliament were victorious, when the queen was obliged to take refuge in France, when the Prince Palatine, Robert, had been defeated, when York had been taken, and when the Commons had obtained against Laud, the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury, the bill of attainder which declared him guilty of the crime of treason. Laud had stood for resistance to the Puritans. 10. Henry Blount, 1602-1680, Father of Charles Blount, the Rosicrucian.

The connection of the Cromwell family with that of the celebrated Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, whose political ideas, formed in Italy, under the guidance of Machiavelli, had so greatly affected the trend of English history, is here not devoid of interest. In 1767, a document was discovered which revealed the existence of a society of Freemasons in Italy with about 64,000 members. ” 11 The document said : — ” At last the great mine of the Freemasons of Naples is discovered, of whom the name, but not the secret, was known. Two circumstances are alleged by which the discovery was brought about : — a dying man revealed all to his confessor, that he should inform the king thereof ; a knight, who had been kept in great state by the society, having had his pension withheld, betrayed the Grand Master of the order to the king. This Grand Master was the Duke of San Severo. The king secretly sent a confidential officer with three dragoons to the duke’s mansion, with orders to seize him before he had time to speak to any one, and bring him to the palace. The order was carried out; but a few minutes after, a fire broke out in the duke’s mansion, destroying his library, the real object being, as is supposed, to burn all writings having reference to Freemasonry. The fire was extinguished, and the house guarded by troops. The duke having been brought before the king, openly declared the objects, system, seals, government, and possessions of the order. He was sent back to his palace, and there guarded by troops, lest he should be killed by his former colleagues. Freemasons have also been discovered at Florence, and the Pope and the Emperor 11. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of All Ages & Countries, vol. I, p. 342., “have sent thither twenty-four theologians to put a stop to the disorder. The king acts with the greatest mercy towards all implicated, to avoid the great dangers that might ensue from a contrary course. He has also appointed four persons of great standing to use the best means to destroy so abominable a sect; and has given notice to all the other sovereigns of Europe of his discovery, and the abominable maxims of the sect, calling upon them to assist in its suppression, which it will be folly in them to refuse to do. For the order does not count its members by thousands, but by millions, especially among Jews and Protestants. Their frightful maxims are only known to the members of the fifth, sixth, and seventh lodges, whilst those of the first three know nothing, and those of the fourth act without knowing what they do. They derive their origin from England, and the founder of the sect was that infamous Cromwell, first Bishop, and then lover of Anne Boleyn, and then beheaded for his crimes, called in his day ‘ the scourge of rulers. ‘ He left the order an annual income of £10,000 sterling. It is divided into seven lodges : the members of the seventh are called Assessors ; of the sixth, Grand Masters ; of the fifth, Architects ; of the fourth, Executors (here the secret ends); of the third, Ruricori (!) ; of the second and first, Novices and Proselytes.

Their infamous idea is based on the allegory of the temple of Solomon, considered in its first splendour, and then overthrown by the tyranny of the Assyrians, and finally restored — thereby to signify the liberty of man after the creation of the world, the tyranny of the priesthood, kings and laws, and the re-establishment of that liberty. ” As for Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, there is no record of his having been an ” accepted mason “. He was however on the best of terms with Richard Penkett and is supposed by many to have been secretly affiliated to the Rose Croix but whether an adept or not he served the purpose of the sect, destruction of the Royal and Ecclesiastical Christian Power ! After the death of Charles I, Cromwell appointed an assembly of lawyers and divines to consider the petition of Manasseh ben Israel (1604-1657) demanding the abolition of the legal exclusion of the Jews from England. In December 1655 the legal prohibition was removed. Eleven years after (1666) occurred the great fire of London. Does the following letter help to solve the mystery of this historical disaster ? It was one of many written by the Secretary-Interpreter of the Marquis de Louvois, an English spy, to his chief in England, published in London in 1697 by D. Jones, Gent. Of the firing of the City of London, in 1666. MY LORD, I am fully satisfied by what I have both seen and heard at Paris and elsewhere, that the Duke of York 1 was in the Year 1666 brought quite over to the French Interest; and I have heard strange Stories related concerning his conduct at the time of that dreadful conflagration of the City, looking upon it Janus-like, with one face seeming concerned for the lamentable disaster, and with the other rejoycing to see that noble pile reduced to ashes, and its citizens ruined ; who had at all times been the greatest propugnators for liberty and property, and opposers of that religion which he now not only secretly protest, but was even ready publickly to own, and rewarding those incendiaries at St. James, who then were suspected generally to be Frenchmen, as your Lorship well may remember ; but by our Minutes it does appear 12. Afterwards James II., they were not such ; but they were persons, at least many of them set on work by French councils, and such as at that time were of all men least suspected ; I mean Jews, of which they had then several in pay, not only in England, but all over Christendom ; not only to give them Intelligence in which they are wondrous active, but likewise to promote and act the worse of mischiefs, as which they make no baulk. By these, fires have been kindled, not only in England, but in Germany, Poland and elsewhere, which the Germans imputed to Turkish Emissaries, though they were Jews hired with French money, the Turkish Policy not being so refined in mischief, these sorts of Jews put on the shape of what Christians they pleased, and of this sort imploy’d by France, there were and are still several in England, the names of one or two of which I think I shall be able to give your Lorship in sometime, though they go by several, as time and occasion doth require, and so at present I remain. My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Humble Servant, Paris, April 7 1676. N. St. More shadows of the past! More strange suggestions to shake the foundations of our belief in things as they seem ! The last of the Grand Masters of the Rose Croix was Johann Christian Wolff. 13 Masonry, which as a secret association had maintained its existence for years had uncovered itself and become an avowed organization with the proclamation of the Anderson Constitution. 14 Once in the open it was to be the universal screen behind which all secret societies, whether theurgic or political, would operate clandestinely. Masonry with its proclamation of three philanthropic 13. According to Sedir (see Histoire des Rose-Croix, p. 112) the last master of Rose Croix died in 1750. His name was Brun. 14. Grand Lodge of England., and altruistic degrees, with no apparent real secret, declaring itself Christian and non-political, would become the centre in which ignorant men, recruited and duped, could act like puppets animated by unseen hands pulling unseen strings. Thus it came about that all blows dealt to Christianity and States were prepared by the secret Societies acting behind the veil of Masonry…..”


image of ancient crossLAW

15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Absolutely not! 16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or obedience resulting in righteousness?( John 8:34; 2Pet 2:19); 17 But thanks be to God that though you were slaves to sin, you obeyed from the heart that pattern of teaching you were entrusted to, 18 and having been freed from sin, you became enslaved to righteousness. (John 8:32; Gal 5:1; 1Pet 2:16); 19 (I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.) For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification. 20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with regard to righteousness.( John 8:34); (Romans Ch:6; 15-20 NET Bible Translation)

The advent of Nominalism in the Middle Ages, where, in retaliation against the chop-logic and use of heathen philosophy of the Scholastic schools, all theology and reality was reduced to crass simplicity and uncertainty, and all complexity in theology with universal concepts was brushed aside in favour of ignorance, gave rise to William of Occam and his greatest and most famous disciple, Martin Luther. The muddled and confused theology of William of Occam, with its rejection of all complexity in theology and reality, set the stage for Martin Luther’s further theological development of Nominalism, particularly in:
a) the reduction of several active Laws within the human condition into only ONE active Law: namely, the WRITTEN or MOSAIC Law;
b) the complete severance of the concept of GRACE from dependence on the “ spiritual LAW” ( the LAW of life-giving SPIRIT as depicted in Romans 8:2), which was a LAW nonetheless, though different to the Mosaic Law. Under the banner of an unscriptural separation of ALL Justice/ Law from ALL Mercy/ Gospel, the Nominalist school under Luther’s influence denied in effect that there was actually a “LAW” of Life-Giving Spirit which governed the Gospel Covenant of mercy with strict JUSTICE ( since all theological “ justice” was deemed to be merely subject to Moses’ LAW), and that any hint of strict justice, particularly as it concerned personal acts of righteousness subsequent to regeneration, were merely to be regarded as unattainable hypocrasies, Pharisaical, selfrighteous, or “ legalistic”, since the only righteousness that existed ( according to the Nominalism of Luther and his school) was to be a mere imputation…
To illustrate the danger of such unscriptural Nominalist theology, we must note the fact that Scripture speaks of SEVERAL active Laws, and NOT just the Written/Mosaic Law, as having influence simultaneously over the human condition both before, during, and AFTER regeneration… Apart from the Civil ( such as the Laws given to Noah and Moses), Municipal, and Ritual Law ( such as that of Moses), all of the following types of LAW are mentioned and differentiated in Scripture:

a)The Written/Mosaic Law, Leviticus, Deuteronomy;

b)The Laws of the Nations ( given to Noah), Genesis;

c)The Law “ unto themselves” ( Law of Conscience), Romans;

d)The Law of our MIND, Romans 7:23;

e)The Law in our MEMBERS, Romans 7:23;

f)The Law of SIN ( and Death)( working in the FLESH as distinct from
the MEMBERS) Romans 7: 23, 25; 8:2;

g)The Law of GOD( working in the MIND) Romans 7:25;

h)The Law of LIFE-GIVING SPIRIT ( Grace) Romans 8:2…

These several “LAWS”, whilst overlapping in some respects and instances, which simultaneously coexist and work in the human corporate as well as moral and natural condition ( Body, Soul and Spirit; personal and/or corporate) DO NOT all fall under the umbrella of the “ LAW” ( Mosaic Law), yet remain independent active Laws and Realities nonetheless.. The Nominalists muddled and bundled ALL the above into ONE category in order to justify their love for crass simplicity at the expense of all and true DISCERNMENT, which often required a knowledge of
COMPLEXITY and an acceptance of UNIVERSALS….

From the above, we find that Grace is actually a LAW also, namely the “ LAW of LIFE-GIVING SPIRIT”; the Spirit of Grace ( Romans 8:2) … Though we know that JESUS came to us in GRACE as “ meek and lowly”, yet he displayed that Grace is ALSO a LAW of JUSTICE ( though different to the Mosaic) by the demonstration of strict justice in casting out the moneychangers and overturning their tables etc.. The following excerpt from Webster’s original edition of the Dictionary highlights well the various types and distinctions of LAW:

LAW, n. [L. lex; from the root of lay. See lay. A law is that which is laid, set or fixed, like statute, constitution, from L. statuo.]
1. A rule, particularly an established or permanent rule, prescribed by the supreme power of a state to its subjects, for regulating their actions, particularly their social actions. Laws are imperative or mandatory, commanding what shall be done; prohibitory, restraining from what is to be forborn; or permissive, declaring what may be done without incurring a penalty. The laws which enjoin the duties of piety and morality, are prescribed by God and found in the Scriptures.Law is beneficence acting by rule.
2. Municipal law, is a rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state, commanding what its subjects are to do, and prohibiting what they are to forbear; a statute. Municipal or civil laws are established by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of absolute princes, as emperors and kings, or by the formal acts of the legislatures of free states. Law therefore is sometimes equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance.
3. Law of nature, is a rule of conduct arising out of the natural relations of human beings established by the Creator, and existing prior to any positive precept. Thus it is a law of nature, that one man should not injure another, and murder and fraud would be crimes, independent of any prohibition from a supreme power.
4. Laws of animal nature, the inherent principles by which the economy and functions of animal bodies are performed, such as respiration, the circulation of the blood, digestion, nutrition, various secretions, _c.
5. Laws of vegetation, the principles by which plants are produced, and their growth carried on till they arrive to perfection.
6. Physical laws, or laws of nature. The invariable tendency or determination of any species of matter to a particular form with definite properties, and the determination of a body to certain motions, changes, and relations, which uniformly take place in the same circumstances, is called a physical law. These tendencies or determinations, whether called laws or affections of matter, have been established by the Creator, and are, with a peculiar felicity of expression, denominated in Scripture,
ordinances of heaven.
7. Laws of nations, the rules that regulate the mutual intercourse of nations or states. These rules depend on natural law, or the principles of justice which spring from the social state; or they are founded on customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and agreements between independent communities. By the law of nations, we are to understand that code of public instruction, which defines the rights and prescribes the duties of nations, in their intercourse with each other.
8. Moral law, a law which prescribes to men their religious and social duties, in other words, their duties to God and to each other. The moral law is summarily contained in the decalogue or ten commandments, written by the finger of God on two tables of stone, and delivered to Moses on mount Sinai. Exo 20.
9. Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action prescribed for the government of a church; otherwise called canon law.
10. Written law, a law or rule of action prescribed or enacted by a sovereign, and promulgated and recorded in writing; a written statute, ordinance, edict or decree. 11. Unwritten or common law, a rule of action which derives its authority from long usage, or established custom, which has been immemorially received and recognized by judicial tribunals. As this law can be traced to no positive statutes, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of courts, and in the reports of judicial decisions.
12. By-law, a law of a city, town or private corporation. [See By.]
13. Mosaic law, the institutions of Moses, or the code of laws prescribed to the Jews,
as distinguished from the gospel.
14. Ceremonial law, the Mosaic institutions which prescribe the external rites and ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, as distinct from the moral precepts, which are of perpetual obligation.
15. A rule of direction; a directory; as reason and natural conscience. These, having not the law, as a law to themselves. Rom 2.
16. That which governs or has a tendency to rule; that which has the power of controlling. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. Rom 7.
17. The word of God; the doctrines and precepts of God, or his revealed will. But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night.
Psa 1.
18. The Old Testament. Is it not written in your law, I said, ye are gods? John 10.
19. The institutions of Moses, as distinct from the other parts of the Old Testament; as the law and the prophets.
20. A rule or axiom of science or art; settled principle; as the laws of versification or poetry.
21. Law martial, or martial law, the rules ordained for the government of an army or military force.
22. Marine laws, rules for the regulation of navigation, and the commercial intercourse of nations.
23. Commercial law, law-merchant, the system of rules by which trade and commercial intercourse are regulated between merchants.
24. Judicial process; prosecution of right in courts of law. Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking the law of every body. Hence the phrase, to go to law, to prosecute; to seek redress in a legal tribunal.
25. Jurisprudence; as in the title, Doctor of Laws.
26. In general, law is a rule of action prescribed for the government of rational beings or moral agents, to which rule they are bound to yield obedience, in default of which they are exposed to punishment; or law is a settled mode or course of action or operation in irrational beings and in inanimate bodies…..( Webster’s Dictionary… 1st Edition).

Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in Gaul ( France) during the mid part of the 2nd century A.D. had the following very relevant words to say on the subject at hand:

Chapter XII.—It clearly appears that there was but one author of both the old and the new law, from the fact that Christ condemned traditions and customs repugnant to the former, while He confirmed its most important precepts, and taught that He was Himself the end of the Mosaic law.
1. For the tradition of the elders themselves, which they pretended to observe from the law, was contrary to the law given by Moses. Wherefore also Esaias declares: “Thy dealers mix the wine with water,” showing that the elders were in the habit of mingling a watered tradition with the simple command of God; that is, they set up a spurious law, and one contrary to the [true] law; as also the Lord made plain, when He said to them, “Why do ye transgress the commandment of God, for the sake of your tradition?” For not only by actual transgression did they set the law of God at nought, mingling the wine with water; but they also set up their own law in opposition to it, which is termed, even to the present day, the pharisaical. In this [law] they suppress certain things, add others, and interpret others, again, as they think proper, which their teachers use, each one in particular; and desiring to uphold these traditions, they were unwilling to be subject to the law of God, which prepares them for the coming of Christ. But they did even blame the Lord for healing on the Sabbath-days, which, as I have already observed, the law did not prohibit. For they did themselves, in one sense, perform acts of healing upon the Sabbath-day, when they circumcised a man [on that day]; but they did not blame themselves for transgressing the command of God through tradition and the aforesaid pharisaical law, and for not keeping the commandment of the law, which is the love of God.
2. But that this is the first and greatest commandment, and that the next [has respect to love] towards our neighbour, the Lord has taught, when He says that the entire law and the prophets hang upon these two commandments. Moreover, He did not Himself bring down [from heaven] any other commandment greater than this one, but renewed this very same one to His disciples, when He enjoined them to love God with all their heart, and others as themselves. But if He had descended from another Father, He never would have made use of the first and greatest commandment of the law; but He would undoubtedly have endeavoured by all means to bring down a greater one than this from the perfect Father, so as not to make use of that which had been given by the God of the law. And Paul in like manner declares, “Love is the fulfilling of the law:” and [he declares] that when all other things have been destroyed, there shall remain “faith, hope, and love; but the greatest of all is love;” and that apart from the love of God, neither knowledge avails anything, nor the understanding of mysteries, nor faith, nor prophecy, but that without love all are hollow and vain; moreover, that love makes man perfect; and that he who loves God is perfect, both in this world and in that which is to come. For we do never cease from loving God; but in proportion as we continue to contemplate Him, so much the more do we love Him.
3. As in the law, therefore, and in the Gospel [likewise], the first and greatest commandment is, to love the Lord God with the whole heart, and then there follows a commandment like to it, to love one’s neighbour as one’s self; the author of the law and the Gospel is shown to be one and the same. For the precepts of an absolutely perfect life, since they are the same in each Testament, have pointed out [to us] the same God, who certainly has promulgated particular laws adapted for each; but the more prominent and the greatest [commandments], without which salvation cannot [be attained], He has exhorted [us to observe] the same in both.4. The Lord, too, does not do away with this [God], when He shows that the law was not derived from another God, expressing Himself as follows to those who were being instructed by Him, to the multitude and to His disciples: “The scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat. All, therefore, whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. For they bind heavy burdens, and lay them upon men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not so much as move them with a finger.” He therefore did not throw blame upon that law which was given by Moses, when He exhorted it to be observed, Jerusalem being as yet in safety; but He did throw blame upon those persons, because they repeated indeed the words of the law, yet were without love. And for this reason were they held as being unrighteous as respects God, and as respects their neighbours. As also Isaiah says: “This people honoureth Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me: howbeit in vain do they worship Me, teaching the doctrines and the commandments of men.” He does not call the law given by Moses commandments of men, but the traditions of the elders themselves which they had invented, and in upholding which they made the law of God of none effect, and were
on this account also not subject to His Word. For this is what Paul says concerning these men: “For they, being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.” And how is Christ the end of the law, if He be not also the final cause of it? For He who has brought in the end has Himself also wrought the beginning; and it is He who does Himself say to Moses, “I have surely seen the affliction of my people which is in Egypt, and I have come down to deliver them;” it being customary from the beginning with the Word of God to ascend and descend for the purpose of saving those who were in affliction.
5. Now, that the law did beforehand teach mankind the necessity of following Christ, He does Himself make manifest, when He replied as follows to him who asked Him what he should do that he might inherit eternal life: “If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.” But upon the other asking “Which?” again the Lord replies: “Do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not bear false witness, honour
father and mother, and thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself,”— setting as an ascending series (velut gradus) before those who wished to follow Him, the precepts of the law, as the entrance into life; and what He then said to one He said to all. But when the former said, “All these have I done” (and most likely he had not kept them, for in that case the Lord would not have said to him, “Keep the commandments”), the Lord, exposing his covetousness, said to him, “If thou wilt be perfect, go, sell all that thou hast, and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me;” promising to those who would act thus, the portion belonging to the apostles (apostolorum partem). And He did not preach to His followers another God the Father, besides Him who was proclaimed by the law from the beginning; nor another Son; nor the Mother, the enthymesis of the Æon, who existed in suffering and apostasy; nor the Pleroma of the thirty Æons, which has been proved vain, and incapable of being believed in; nor that fable invented by the other heretics. But He taught that they should obey the commandments which God enjoined from the beginning, and do away with their former covetousness by good works, and follow after Christ. But that possessions distributed to the poor do annul former covetousness, Zaccheus made evident, when he said, “Behold, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have defrauded any one, I restore fourfold.” ( Irenaeus Against Heresies Ch: 12).

“….15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Absolutely not! 16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or obedience resulting in righteousness? (John 8:34; 2Pet 2:19); 17 But thanks be to God that though you were slaves to sin, you obeyed from the heart that pattern of teaching you were entrusted to, 18 and having been freed from sin, you became enslaved to righteousness. (John 8:32; Gal 5:1; 1Pet 2:16); 19 (I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.) For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification. 20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with regard to righteousness. (John 8:34); (Romans Ch:6; 15-20 NET Bible Translation)

The following references and quotes of Luther’s own admissions of being ” an Ockhamist”, and of William of Ockham being his ” dear teacher” etc. are taken from Philip Schaff’s classic work on the History of the Christian Church.. Luther, being taught at the Ockhamist University at Erfurt, based most ( if not all) of his errors on Nominalism..Rosicrucians in Germany, such as Jacob Boehme and his circle, were avowed Ockhamists and Neo-Platonists…



(BY Philip Schaff. Scribner & Sons 1910 edition)

…..Ockam’s views on the authority of the civil power, papal errancy, the infallibility of the Scriptures and the eucharist are often compared with the views of Luther.364 The German reformer spoke of the English Schoolman as “without doubt the leader and most ingenious of the Schoolmen”—scholasticorum doctorum sine dubio princeps et ingeniosissimus. He called him his “dear teacher,” and declared himself to be of Ockam’s party—sum Occamicae factionis.365 The two men were, however, utterly unlike. Ockam was a theorist, not a reformer, and in spite of his bold sayings, remained a child of the mediaeval age. He started no party or school in theological matters. Luther exalted personal faith in the living Christ. He discovered new principles in the Scriptures, and made them the active forces of individual and national belief and practice. We might think of Luther as an Ockam if he had lived in the fourteenth century. We cannot think of Ockam as a reformer in the sixteenth century. He would scarcely have renounced monkery. Ockam’s merit consists in this that, in common with Marsiglius and other leaders of thought, he imbibed the new spirit of free discussion, and was bold enough to assail the traditional dogmas of his time. In this way he contributed to the unsettlement of the pernicious mediaeval theory of the seat of authority.
364 For example, Kropatscheck, especially p. 66 sqq., and Seeberg, p. 289.
365 Weimar, ed. VI. 183, 195, 600, as quoted by Seeberg.
STÖCKL: Die Philos. des M. A., II. 986–1021, and art. Nominalismus in Wetzer-Welte, IX.—BAUR: Die christl. Kirche d. M. A., p. 377 sqq.—MÜLLER: Der Kampf Ludwigs des Baiern.—R. L. POOLE in Dict. of Natl. Biog., XLI. 357–362.—R. SEEBERG in Herzog, XIV. 260–280.—A. DORNER; D. Verhältniss von Kirche und Staat nach Occam in Studien und Kritiken, 1886, pp. 672–722.—F. KROPATSCHECK: Occam und Luther in Beitr. zur Förderung christl. Theol., Gütersloh, 1900.—Art. Nominalismus, by STÖCKL in Wetzer-Welte, IX. 423–427.


image of ancient cross

Islam and the Worship of Alilat/Allah/ Aphrodite

Formidable, heroic acts of worldly “ greatness” that men and women over the ages have committed or produced, have invariably been reduced to two governing traits and motives. The first process is deemed to stem from a chain of discovery; the product of benign and contemplative reason. The second process is thought to stem from the wilful; the plainly brutish and animistic; the irrational and instinctive. The comingling of the two traits and strains of motivating methods rarely gives rise to potency or greatness, at least in the esteem of mankind and this transient world of experience, which men and women have, in the futility of the quest and chase after fortune and fame and riches and power, perennially sought and struggled for.

Middle ground just does not breed greatness, yet greatness remains the goal of all heroic acts. The “ via media” just does not allow for individuality, yet all the great are invariably great individuals. Admixture just does not highlight extremes, yet extremes determine the course of all heroic acts, and rarely admit or allow anything but the selective.. Heroics of any sort demand the limelight. They find no satisfaction with shadows and shade. They shun all mediocrity with a vengeance. The formidable, the heroic, the great, the famous, the rich, fortunate and powerful, have always been the shaping and governing influences of society, of history..

But in all this chasing after the heroic, the great, the rich and the powerful, there is still a voice: that “ still, small voice” which formed original humanity from the dust of the ground, which perennially sends out its sweet prophetic canticle with the wisely veiled retort that “ the meek shall inherit the earth”. It begs the question: where is greatness then? It supplies the answer: In the meek…

Though the “ heroic element, quest and drive” in mankind has inspired and produced over the ages scores of individuals who have left lasting impressions in this world; as our lawgivers, as our artists, as our prophets, as our wits, as our priests, as our educators, as our leaders, as our warriors, as our haters, as our lovers, as our virtuous, as our decadent, as our innovators, and as our healers and destroyers, yet so very, very few, can actually be said to have been free of that “ vain quest” which the wise King Solomon of old claimed was the besetting ( and besotting) sin of all mankind, and of “everything under the sun”. Having himself traversed the extremes of Gnostic philosophy, worldly wisdom, decadence and pleasure, science, fame and fortune and “ greatness”, having in so many ways been to history an example of what not to do and what not to be, all that the now-wise-king could convey to posterity was that all questing, all greatness, was mere chasing after vanity, and mere urinating against, and reaping of, the wind..

All our greatness, therefore, all our quests and aspirations for the heroic, are, in the end, mere “ vanity”, and puffs of wind. According to Solomon the King, who had in the end of his days become penitent and had ceased from chasing after the “ vanities” and “ greatness” of this fallen and corrupted world, having, through much vain questing after wisdom and knowledge only reaped the “ wind”, the end result was simply summed up as “ vanity”. He had, finally, found his true vocation, and by “ fleeing the vanity of this world”, had become the truly great and truly heroic, and the greatly inspired as well as greatly inspirational, “ preacher of Israel”.. Yet in the end, his parting sermon was that “ all was vanity” and that to simply “ fear God” was true Wisdom; a wisdom entirely at variance with the profane “ vanity and wisdom of this world”….

That Islam seeks a “ greatness” is undeniable. That the greatness it seeks is mere vanity is also undeniable. That it seeks the greatness of this world and is not afraid to impose its bestial will on that world by force, by sword, tribute ( head tax) or wilfull conversion, is also undeniable. That it claims its greatness and irresistible temporal success is from the deity they worship: Allah ( whom they in ancient times prior to the false prophet Mahommad’s appearance they worshipped as “Alilat”, the daemon spirit of the morning star called Venus, as depicted in the flag of Islam: the “ star” in the crescent moon), is likewise undeniable.

Yet in all this undeniability, we must deny them the greatness they boast of; the wisdom they lay claim to under the pretense of justly “ fearing their deity”.. Islam defiles itself with its own boasting; its own vanity, and by this befouling bellies the fact that it not only has no resident wisdom, but that it has no resident “ meekness”, and will therefore be cast out, and will never truly “ inherit the earth”….. The raging, foaming maw of this beast called Islam may have its dog-day for a short while, but its days are counted and numbered, and its attempt to challenge the God of Israel, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob: the Holy Triune Godhead of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, is soon to be quashed and scattered by the winds they so zealously urinate against.. The days are indeed numbered for the transgressors, including proud and vain Islam…

The peculiar penchant of the Islamic Eastern mentality is to meander and muddle through things entirely disparate in their own right, and to attempt to somehow alchemically mix and mingle things and concepts that should or ought never to be concocted, and to join things and ideas that even nature never thought to be joined. In response to this wayward characteristic mentality we may find a universally embedded adage which rings equally true for all time, through all nations, through all tribes and peoples, yet one which the ignorant historian and anthropologist is rarely prepared to consider or admit of.

“ As their gods are, so are the people” is a thoroughly Biblical adage which simply teaches that we can know a tree by its fruits, and that a “ bad/evil tree” ( the “ gods” of the people/ followers) will invariably bear “bad/evil fruits” ( the “ people/followers” of the gods). A “ god” is simply to be regarded as any primary object of veneration and belief. Sticks and stones and elements, just as much as spirits and daemons, can be regarded as primary objects of veneration and belief, and therefore as “ gods”.

This point was the great historical bone of contention between the true God, the God of Israel ( who was worshipped under the names of ELOHIM and YAHVEH), who was ONE Godhead in THREE persons ( Father, Son, and Holy Ghost), and the entire concert of deities, heroes, gods and demigods which the deluded followers of every other nation on earth excepting the Faithful remnant seed amongst the nation of Israel, invariably bowed down to and gave their allegiance.

When King David, the natural father of King Solomon, claimed in an inspired psalm that “ the gods of the nations were ALL daemons ( fallen angels that could never be saved or repent)”, he made no exceptions, nor gave the slightest hint of a dispensation to any people other than the believing remnant in the nation of Israel. None on earth, amongst ALL exising peoples, except the nation of Israel, were given custody of the worship of the one true Godhead. When Israel became vain with their own successes and greatness, they began to seek out and assimilate other gods, other daemons, as King David affirmed, and King Solomon and all the prophets of Yahveh/Elohim confirmed.

When Israel turned to persecutor of the truth, having once been the only custodian of the truth, at the advent of their long promised Messiah, Jesus Christ, whom they slew at the hands of Rome, they became “ blinded for a season” ( prophetically now almost 2000 years). The lot of custodianship then fell to the “ true remnant of believers in Israel”, who in those early days of The Faith, were scornfully styled “ the sect of the Christians”. This “ sect” was to spread the “ Faith of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob” in the true God and His Messiah, Jesus Christ, to the four quarters of the world within the lifetime of the 12 Apostles themselves..

The Holy Scriptures of the Law and the Prophets of the Hebrews, which until this time was held and preserved by the nation of Israel, was to find its fulfilment and exposition in the Books of the New Testament, which were, under direct inspiration from the Spirit of Yahveh/ Elohim: the only TRUE God, penned by the Apostles of Jesus Christ and their disciples in the language of the Gentile world, namely Greek. The CROWNING prophecy to mankind; the final and ultimate declaration and blueprint for the future, was given by the Holy Spirit of God to the beloved Apostle John the Evangelist on the island of Patmos @ 95 AD. This Book and Vision, called the “ Apocalypse ( Revelation) of Jesus Christ” was given by God in order to fulfil the Apostle Paul’s prophecy to the Corinthians that there would shortly come a time when “ tongues shall cease, and prophecy shall fail”, namely, that the miraculous manifestations and gifts of Pentecost would temporarily ( for almost 2000 years) cease, and no further inspired prophecy would be given to mankind from God AFTER the Apocalypse.. The Apocalypse is therefore to be regarded as the FINAL SEAL of all prophetic utterance to mankind.

With the gradual loss of purity in the early church of the first two centuries, both inside and outside of Rome, a number of prominent heresies came to the fore and proceeded to insinuate themselves within the Christendom of the day.. Three of these were to be embraced by the Arab nation, the Saracens, at about the time of the appearance of the false prophet Mahommad. The EBIONITES, who were known as the “ Judaizing” sect in the New Testament Scriptures, sought to integrate Jewish tooth-for-a-tooth and eye-for-an-eye LAW with some tenets of Christianity. This heresy, with certain Baptistic Mandaean influences, in conjunction with the disciples of Simon Magus and the Greek Prophets ( particularly Plato and Pythagoras), produced a little-known “ heresy of the Elkasaites”, who found a haven in Arabia and flourished there.

The GNOSTICS were known as the disciples of the apostate and heresiarch Simon Magus, who died in Rome opposing the Apostle Peter. They were also known as Neo Platonists and Pythagoreans, and mixed Pagan Philosophy with Mysticism and pseudo-Christian doctrine ( particularly that of the Pythagorean sect of the Essenes). In their midst was bred the mystery school of “ Militant Mithraism”, which worshipped the Persian deity “ Mitra” as both male AND female, namely as the pagan daemon Hermes AND Aphrodite ( from which concept we receive the term “ hermaphrodite” for a creature with both sexes)…

The first challenges to the established corpus of Sacred Scripture which until then had been universally ( at least within the Christian Fold) regarded as completed and SEALED with the deliverance of the Apocalypse by God the Holy Spirit through the pen of Saint John the Evangelist, came from the quarters of the false prophet ELKASAI, and also a new heretical movement called MONTANISM; both of which heresies maintained that there was a continuation of prophetic utterance BEYOND the Sacred Scriptures and the Apocalypse, and that Elkasai and Montanus, were of equal prophetic inspiration as the original authors of the Old and New Testament Scripture.

This diabolically false notion that there would come a “ prophet for every subsequent age” was shortly thereafter embraced by another GNOSTIC false prophet called MANI ( the founder of Manichaeism, which was a revival of Pythagorean Buddhism in the Eastern and the Western parts of the Roman Empire). Shortly before the arrival of Mahommad, the heresy of the EBIONITES, which blasphemously denied the Godhood of Jesus Christ and the Tri-Unity of the Almighty Godhead ( the cardinal founding doctrines of Christianity) had sired the ARIAN/ UNITARIAN movement of the false Bishop ARIUS, and the sect of the Montanists had, through their most able convert Tertullian, insinuated themselves in the chair of Saint Peter at Rome. From that point onward and to this very day, Roman Catholicism has remained a MONTANIST heresy mingled with GNOSTICISM.

As a young man, the Arab Mahommad, during his mercantile journeys to the Levantine countries, was initiated into ARIANISM by the Monk SERGIUS of Syro-Phoenicia. From ARIANISM Mahommad received the pseudo-Judaizing elements of the ancient EBIONITES against which the New Testament Scripture persistently warns us. From The disciples of ELKASAI in Arabia, Mahommad had already received initiation during his youth. As Mahommad grew in vanity, imbued as he became with the flatteries of Sergius the Arian and the Elkasaites, and under the complete ecstatic possession of the tutelary god/daemon of the Arab nation ( Alilat/ Allah/Aphrodite/ Venus, whose image he had seen and worshipped in Arabia as the “ black stone of the Kaaba”), in a series of lengthy Pythonic verbal ejaculations, gave to his scribes ( whilst shamanistically shivering under a blanket and under the possessive influence of his “ Alilat/Allah”, whom the pagan Arabs styled “ Khabar” or “ Akhbar”, meaning “ Great” in the Arab tongue) what, with certain redactions, became their revered yet quite unholy Al-Coran ( Koran)…

In order to fully perceive and comprehend who this Alilat/Allah is, we must turn to the words of the pre-Christian historian Herodotus, who wrote his famous “ Histories” several centuries prior to the appearance of Mahommad. It is Herodotus who informs us that Allah/ Alilat, the supreme deity of the ancient Arabs, is none other that the Aphrodite of the Greeks, and the Venus Urania of the Latins…

Herodotus the ancient historian, when speaking of the daemons worshipped by the ancient Persians, continues as follows:
….”They are accustomed to ascend the highest parts of the mountains, and offer sacrifice to Jupiter, and they call the whole circle of the heavens by the name of Jupiter. They sacrifice to the sun and moon, to the earth, fire, water, and the winds. To these alone they have sacrificed from the earliest times : but they have since learned from the Arabians and Assyrians to sacrifice to Venus Urania, whom the Assyrians call Venus Mylitta, the Arabians, Alitta, and the Persians, Mitra….” ( On Persian worship, Herodotus “The Histories” Book 1)
And again:
….”The Arabians observe pledges as religiously as any people and they make them in the following manner : When any wish to pledge their faith, a third person, standing between the two parties, makes an incision with a sharp stone in the palm of the hand, near the longest fingers, of both the contractors ; then taking some of the nap from the garment of each, he smears seven stones, placed between them, with the blood ; and as he does this he invokes Bacchus and Urania ( Alilat,Aphrodite). When this ceremony is completed, the person who pledges his faith binds his friends as sureties to the stranger, or the citizen if the contract be made with a citizen, and the friends also hold themselves obliged to observe the engagement.
They acknowledge no other gods than Bacchus and Urania, and they say that their hair is cut in the same way as Bacchus’s is cut ; but they cut it in a circular form, shearing it round the temples. They call Bacchus, Orotal ; and (Venus) Urania, Alilat…..”

The extremely licentious and diabolical identity of the Arab Allah/Alilat, which daemonic deity has absolutely no connection with the one true God of the Bible and Scripture, whose correlative amongst the Greeks was called Aphrodite, amongst the Latins Venus, and amongst the Germanic and Scandinavian nations as Frigga and Freya, and the Meso-Americans as Quetzalcoatl, may easily be discovered in the acts of the heroes and gods and myths of all these nations, and every other nation on earth.
The following definition of the name “lucifer” is taken from Wikipedia, and clearly illustrates the correlation between Satan/ Lucifer and Venus Urania/ Phosphorus ( otherwise worshipped and known as Aphrodite/ Freya/ Alilat/ Allah/Quetzalcoatl)…:

Lucifer (/ˈluːsɪfər/ or /ˈljuːsɪfər/) is the King James Version rendering of the Hebrew wordהֵילֵל in Isaiah 14:12. This word, transliterated hêlêl] or heylel, occurs only once in theHebrew Bible] and according to the KJV-influenced Strong’s Concordance means “shining one, morning star, Lucifer”. The word Lucifer is taken from the Latin Vulgate, which translates הֵילֵל as lucifer,[Isa 14:12][4][5] meaning “the morning star, the planet Venus”, or, as an adjective, “light-bringing”.] The Septuagint renders הֵילֵל in Greek as ἑωσφόρος[ (heōsphoros),a name, literally “bringer of dawn”, for the morning star..

…….As a noun, it meant “morning star”, or, in Roman mythology, its divine personification as “the fabled son of Aurora and Cephalus, and father of Ceyx”, or (in poetry) “day”. The second of the meanings attached to the word when used as a noun corresponds to the image inGreek mythology of Eos, the goddess of dawn, giving birth to the morning star Phosphorus.

Indeed, what one believes in and venerates, is what one becomes like. The Bible repeatedly attests to the reality that the whole world worships, and is led by, Satan/Lucifer. In Isaiah 14 we have the very name of Satan mentioned ( Lucifer) as well as a prophecy of his original personal fall from grace and his eventual downfall and judgement. Fallen angels/daemons such as Lucifer can never repent or be saved.

5 The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers. 6 He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth.4 7 The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing. 8 Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us. 9 Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.5 6 10 All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us? 11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. 12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!7 13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. 15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. 16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms; 17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?
( Isaiah 14; KJV)

The religion of the Arabs, namely Islam, has its predecessors and its successors, known to all posterity as the worshippers of APHRODITE the “ Morning Star”( Venus Urania), whom, according to the weighty testimony of Herodotus, they styled in their own language as ALILAT, and from which name of Aphrodite they derive the name of their highest Deity “ ALLAH”, which is none other than Aphrodite/ Venus Urania. According to Herodotus the Historian, …”These used to be idolaters and worshiped the morning star and Aphrodite, whom in their own language they called Khabar, which means great.” In their present form of worship of their ancient daemon, Aphrodite/ Alilat/ Allah,Islam continues the use of “ Akhbar” ( meaning “ great” in Arabic), which of old was termed “Khabar”.

Saint John of Damascus in his famous compendium on the Christian Faith “ De Fide”, writing almost 12 centuries ago, had the following expositions and admonitions to relate concerning the Islamic “ forerunner of Antichrist”, and the worship of Aphrodite/Lucifer/ Satan as the “ morning star”..

101. There is also the superstition of the Ishmaelites which to this day prevails and keeps people in error, being a forerunner of the Antichrist. They are descended from Ishmael, was was born to Abraham of Agar, and for this reason they are called both Agarenes and Ishmaelites. They are also
called Saracens, which is derived from Zappocq KSVOL, or destitute of Sara, because of what Agar said to the angel: ‘Sara hath sent me away destitute.’
(99) These used to be idolaters and worshiped the morning star and Aphrodite, whom in their own language they called Khabar, which means great. ” And so down to the time of Heraclius they were
very great idolaters. From that time to the present a false prophet named Mohammed has appeared in their midst. This man, after having chanced upon the Old and New Testaments and likewise, it seems, having conversed with an Arian monk,
(101) devised his own heresy. Then, having insinuated himself into the good graces of the people by a show of seeming piety, he gave out that a certain book had been sent down to him from heaven. He had set down some ridiculous compositions in this book of his and he gave it to them as an object of veneration. He says that there is one God, creator of all things, who has neither been begotten nor has begotten.

(102) He says that the Christ is the Word of God and His Spirit, but a creature and a servant, and that He was begotten, without seed, of Mary the sister of Moses and Aaron.
(99 Cf. Gen. 16.8. Sozomen also says that they were descended from Agar, but called themselves descendants of Sara to hide their servile origin (Ecclesiastical History 6.38, PG 67.1412AB) .)
(100 The Arabic kabirun means ‘great,’ whether in size or in dignity. Herodotus mentions the Arabian cult of the ‘Heavenly Aphrodite’ but says that the Arabs called her Alilat (Herodotus 1.131) .)
(101 This may be the Nestorian monk Bahira (George or Sergius) who met the boy Mohammed at Bostra in Syria and claimed to recognize in him the sign of a prophet.)
(102 Koran, Sura 112.)
(103 Sura 19; 4.169.)
(107 The Ka’ba, called ‘The House of God,’ is supposed to have been built by Abraham with the help of Ismael. It occupies the most sacred spot in the Mosque of Mecca. Incorporated in its wall is the stone here referred to, the famous Black Stone, which is obviously a relic of the idolatry of the pre-Islam Arabs.)
(108 Gen. 22.6.)
Then we say : ‘Let it be Abraham’s, as you so foolishly say. Then, just because Abraham had relations with a woman on it or tied a camel to it, you are not ashamed to kiss it, yet you blame us for venerating the cross of Christ by which the power of the demons and the deceit of the Devil was destroyed.’ This stone that they talk about is a head of that Aphrodite whom they used to worship and whom they called Khabar. Even to the present day, traces of the carving are visible on it to
careful observers….” ( Saint John of Damascus, “ De Fide”)…

Though the present day Arabs may be descended indeed from the Patriarch Abraham through Hagar and Keturah, they are in no way to be regarded as of the FAITH of Abraham, and are certainly NOT to be classed as possessors of an “ Abrahamic Religion”. Islam is an admixture of the ancient worship of Alilat/Allah/Aphrodite/Lucifer with the Heresy of Ebionite Arianism. Modern sects such as the Quaker Unitarians, Socinians, Mormons, the Freemasons and Rosicrucians ( who are all of Ebionite/Unitarian/ Islamic Ismaili origin), as well as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, must also be classed as holding to, and furthering, the tenets of Ismaili Islam…

It is time for all lovers of the truth to shake off the shackles of ignorance regarding the fact that Islam is the religion of the coming final Antichrist, who will be a Jewish convert to Ismaili Islam from the tribe of Dan, as the early church invariably affirmed and taught and warned, and who will introduce universal decapitation/beheadings for all opposers of Islam once the Emperorship of Europe is handed to him by the final Montanistic Pope at Rome ( the great False Prophet).. It is also an undeniable fact that the notion of “ HALAL” is intimately linked to the ancient mode of sacrifice to Alilat/ Aphrodite, namely Lucifer/Satan..

True greatness is judged by unfeigned meekness. Whosoever shall live by the sword shall die by the sword… What one sows one shall reap. The licentious and murderous nature of Islam may very soon see it as the dominant religion of the masses precisely as the ancient worship of Aphrodite and Venus was at one time the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. It is then that we shall find, from Europe, the French Maiden ( the guillotine)once again oiled and readied for mass extermination of Christians: Eugenics on an unprecedented scale… As the gods are, so are the people. Islam is Satanism made respectable, and Allah/Alilat is Lucifer himself, the great rebel against Almighty God.

THEOSIS: The Primordial Apple of Temptation

image of ancient cross

The Primordial Apple of Temptation.
The notion that a mere creature, whether angel or Man, may, often through arduous psychological and physical discipline, aspire to and even attain mystical Gnostic “Deification”, “ Divinization” or “ Union” and “ Oneness with God”, is as old as the Garden of Eden itself. It may be assumed that, infact, it is a little older still, since the very serpent ( the fallen angel Asclepius/ Venus/ Lucifer) that offered the Hesperidian Apple of Gnosis and Theosis to Eve and then Adam through Eve, had itself some time earlier sought such a spiritual elevation but, having failed in the proud and vain quest, was relegated to perpetual shame by being cast out of Heaven itself, as the author and originator of sin and evil in the Heavenly and Cosmic realms. The vain quest for Mystical and Gnostic Deification, or “ Absorption” or “ Union with God” is indeed, the very Hesperidian “ Apple of Gnosis and Temptation” that, through the agency of the daemon Asclepius/ Venus/ Lucifer in the form of a serpent, brought death and sin not only to the then innocent and pure human condition, but by reflex to all nature itself.
1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? 2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: 3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. 4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: 5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. 7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
(Genesis Chapter 3: 1-7 KJV)
This primordial SIN is the very origin of Original Sin in the human condition, which the disobedience of Adam, by giving credence and heed to the serpent’s cunning guile via the agency of his wife Eve, conveyed to all his posterity as a deadly Reality and TENDENCY ( though certainly NOT a NECESSITY nor an INEVITABILITY to individual “ sins”) toward the rebellion of sin; that “ sin which worketh in our members” so long as we are in this human condition ( as the Apostle to the Gentiles, Paul, clearly adumbrates); the denial of which original sin (if we deny that it exists and “ is in us”, according to the Apostle John) openly manifests the denier as being devoid of the truth. When speaking of Original Sin, the Apostle John declares thus:
“If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.” ( 1John 1:8 KJV)
Mystical THEOSIS, therefore, under the subtle, yet quite blasphemous, screen of “ Union”, “ Oneness” and even “ Absorption” into the Deity, often by protracted physical and psychological self-flaggelating exercises ( therefore without actually “ dying daily to one’s self-willed impulses” by “ denying oneself, taking up the cross and following Christ Jesus through meek humility of mind” and seeking the will of Almighty God rather than our own will and fancies, including “ self- transformation” and mystical methodology designed to attain to “ Theosis”), that have a mere “ semblance and outward show of Godliness” and “ feigned humility” that simply feeds inward aspirations to personal deification, is the very sin of Luciferic pride and self-elevation that the “ wise of this world” and those “ false ministers of righteousness” that “parade as angels of light” and even “ministers of Christ” regard and further as the crowning Heroic and Herculean feat of the so-called “ spiritual earthly QUEST” and “ Ladder of Ascent to Heaven”…..
It remains true that the early Church Fathers often spoke of the fact that as Christians we indeed were MORE than only human, for we are then not merely “ men” and “ women” but are raised to a level “ a little lower than the angels”, and are therefore styled “ sons of God” in imitation of the angelic orders who were similarly styled “ sons of God” or “ ben Elohim”, in Hebrew. This elevation to what Scripture terms as “ lesser Gods”, implies NOT that we become creator Gods or are unified with or somehow absorbed into the Holy Deity, but that we assume, by the resurrection of Christ, a NEW nature which is “ partly Angelic” and above our present human nature, yet retain fully our existing personality. The Pythagorean and Buddhistic and Kabbalistic notion of “ self-annihilation” and the “ absorption of the individual into the collective consciousness” or even ( and especially) the “Godhead collective”, is entirely alien and foreign to the Biblical and Christian theology and governing principle of “ self-denial”.
This transformation of our nature is NOT a “ progressive evolution” nor a “ ladder of ascent to deification” ( THEOSIS), but quite the contrary is an instantaneous assumption of a new nature that occurs at one’s conversion, BAPTISM, and Chrismation/Filling with the Holy Spirit… In other words, the fallacy and blasphemy of Theosis, whether considered as a Christianized or a Pagan phenomena, is based on an EVOLVING ladder of ascent and self-transforming metamorphosis of the human condition from, to put it metaphorically, a “ larval-like spiritual state” to a fully-fledged “ butterfly state” that experiences purgation ( Katharsis) struggle and growth inside an “inner- cocoon” of psycho-somatic substance and energy ( “Energeia”), only to emerge eventually as a fully grown “ new being” or “ god”, much like a moth or butterfly would emerge from a worm-like larval cocooned state into a fully-fledged winged moth or butterfly.
This was the very teaching of the ancient Pagans and Pantheists, especially the Orphics and the Kabbalistic Pythagoreans such as the Druids, the Buddhists, the Essenes and the Druzes, who coined the presumed metamorphic process term “ APOTHEOSIS”, which blasphemy the Papacy and the Roman Church absorbed and styled “ SAINTLY CANONIZATION/ Divinization”, and which the HESYCHAST movement in Greek Orthodoxy and the “ QUIETIST” movement in Romanism and Protestantism further to this very day. The Spiritual excercises of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, may also be grouped with the theology of Theosis amongst the MYSTICS. The antinomian Rosicrucian and Masonic Orders and sects such as the “ Familists” ( Family of Love) of Henrik Niclaes, were also instrumental in relaying to the western church the eastern doctrines concerning THEOSIS under the infamous banner of being “ godded with God”. The present-day Mormon blasphemies teach the very same doctrines also.
Mystical Gnostic THEOSIS is the basis of subtle doctrines of daemons that concern themselves with “ SELF-TRANSFORMATION” and “ INNER GROWTH”, popular amongst Tel-Evangelists and the Charismatic and Pentecostal Movements, in vulgar and vain imitation of the Biblical allusions to a Christian’s progressive “ growth in Grace” which has nothing in common with mystical THEOSIS nor some “ spiritual ladder of ascent” or “ self-transformation”, but concerns the progressive cultivation of “ virtue” and subsequent “ favour” with Almighty God and with men…
Egyptian “ mummification” of the dead was similarly introduced in ancient times as a symbolized means of transferring and transmuting the dead human condition from the purely material to the “ divine” THROUGH this supposed “ larval/cocooned metamorphic process” of deification; the futility of which attempts remain proverbial for all time…..
“THEOSIS”, Divinization, Deification, “APOTHEOSIS”, therefore, though containing a semblance of Godliness, Humility and Biblicalism, has perennially been the great “ Apple of Temptation” which the serpent Venus/Lucifer dangles before those who, struggling to stay on the “ straight and narrow path that leads to salvation”, take the bite of Gnostic rebellion and vanity, and enter the “ broad way which leadeth to death” by an all-too great a preoccupation with the process of death and/or the “QUEST” to escape from it, through the cultivation of self-flaggelating self- knowledge/gnosis, and through false-humility, will-worship and spiritual pride, which in fact become the greatest form of inner self-elevation and eventuate in the ultimate “ rebellion against Almighty God Himself” through the proclamation of one’s own Deification/ Godhood… This is the great sin of all Antichrists, and will very soon culminate in the final great sin of the final great ANTICHRIST, who, having taken the doctrine of THEOSIS to its logical end, will proclaim himself to be almighty God in the very Holy of Holies of the soon to be rebuilt Jewish Temple at Jerusalem, and will not only usher in the final great persecution, but will invoke the final wrath of Almighty God upon the entire world of men…
There is not a single Religion in the world which does not adhere to some form of THEOSIS/APOTHEOSIS as its crowning goal and philosophical/spiritual quest. The secret means of attaining such a state has always been daemonic possession through THEURGIC invocation, meditative incantation and exercise. For this reason Simeon the New Theologian ( the founder, or rather the reviver in Eastern Orthodoxy of the Praxis, Methodism and doctrines of Pythagoras) was initially rejected by the Church as a rebel against the authority of Bishops and a practitioner of mystical/magical THEURGIC exercises and pagan novelties such as vegetarianism.
The mystical notions of THEOSIS and THEURGY promulgated by the disciples of Zoroaster/Saturn ( also known as Nimrod/Osiris) which sought to revive the rule of Saturn/Nimrod/Moloch in memory of the so-called “ Golden Age of Saturn” when the whole world was united in hedonistic humanism under Nimrod/Zoroaster’s famed “ Tower of Babel”, shortly after the great deluge of Noah some 4200 years ago, through a continuing stream of secret brotherhoods and trade guilds to the author of all Gnostic Apostasy, Hermes Trismegistos ( otherwise known as the evil apostate of the Jewish tribe of Dan: Huram Abiff) the founder of the great Hermetic Gnostic “ Mystery of Iniquity”: then the Kabbalist Pythagoras ( the Buddhists, the Essenes and Therapeutae, and the Druids) and subsequently Simon Magus, and their Neoplatonic/Gnostic disciples such as pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Cerinthus, Hypatia and Apollonius of Tyana: and on to Merlin and the Druid King Arthur of “ Arthurian Romance” fame, then Charlemagne and his Chivalric Renaissance; in turn gave rise to Islamic Ismaili/ Druze and Dervishistic FREEMASONRY and ROSICRUCIANISM, which secret orders invariably taught the doctrines of Hesychastic/ Quietistic mystical THEOSIS and THEURGY from which quarters, via the monks and crusaders of the middle ages, they have infiltrated and insinuated and embedded themselves in both Eastern and Western Christendom ( both Church and Society) to such an extent that their own disciples are now recognized and accepted as canonized “ saints”, both in the east and west, and follow the monastic orders and philosophical tenets that the pagan Kabbalist Pythagoras made popular at Samos and Crotona, and through his disciples the Buddhists, Essenes and Druids, throughout the entire known world…..
When we consider that all modern “ science falsely so-called” stems from the Pagan Philosophers such as Pythagoras, Epicurus and the Stoics, and that Science, Sport and Entertainment were ALWAYS associated with secret societies and social orders of INITIATION, particularly Theosophical orders such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, and that the goal of the Sporting ( Olympian), Entertainment ( Thespian) and Scientific ( Rosicrucian/Gnostic) industries has perennially been to elevate the human condition to GODHOOD ( under the pretense of the “ betterment of mankind” and the “ attainment of happiness”) through the carrot lie of humanism and the so-called “ Rights of Man” ( liberty, equality and fraternity; ie Godless antinomian hedonism), we may safely conclude that the Biblical adages which state that the “ whole world lieth in wickedness”, and that “ whosoever is a friend of this world is the enemy of God”, and that the god of this world is in fact Lucifer/Venus/Asclepius, remain ever-increasingly true to this day..
Through mystical THEOSIS man infact has rebelled against His maker, and under the pretense of spirituality and religious humility and will-worship has sought to vainly elevate himself in the same rebellious way that Lucifer/Venus did before the fall of Man in the Garden of Eden.. The Devil still offers his Hesperidian apples of mystical/Gnostic THEOSIS as temptations to the unwary pilgrim and sojourner in this world, and beckons him or her to take a bite at the expense of their eternal soul..
This “ doctrine of the deep things of Satan”; the doctrine of THEOSIS, has fallen, like the fabled “ emerald tablet” from the very crown of the Devil/Lucifer/Venus himself… Whoever seeks this unholy grail must reap an unholy reward in eternity. May God preserve us all from this ultimate temptation to sin, death and rebellion, and help us to resist the Devil that he may flee.. May God set a hedge around His Christian children, the TRUE “ sons and daughters of God”, who need seek no further than their new birth in Christ Jesus; their growth in Grace, their true Sainthood, Holiness, Purity, and Righteousness of Life ( if they indeed be true Christians); as fully transformed “ new creatures in Christ Jesus”; baptized and enlightened and filled with the Spirit of God, the “ Spirit of Holiness” without which no man or woman may see God. May we indeed learn to lean on the shoulders of our beloved Jesus Christ when exiting the weary and toilsome labours in the field of this world, in the full knowledge and belief that “ our beloved is ours, and we are his”, and that striving to maintain anything but Holy Virtue, Grace, Faith, Hope and Charity in this world will inevitably miss the mark and fall short of the aim and goal of all human existence. “ Vanity, vanity, all is vanity” said the wise and repentant King Solomon, having by then become a Preacher. All vain striving for THEOSIS is, likewise, a fruitless and dangerous endeavour which merely mimicks Godliness, but denies the power thereof. Our striving must be to “ enter through the narrow gate” and leave all striving for the broad gate of this vain world to those who are the children of vanity, rebellion and strife. The Truth of God must be LOVED and not merely handled.. God’s people, indeed, perish for a lack of knowledge.
May our Lord Jesus Christ raise up worthy servants and shepherds to regather His scattered sheep who are now being devoured by the wolves of hypocrisy and deceit, who preach “ another Jesus” yet hide beneath the sheep’s clothing of a Christian. God preserve us from false brothers and sisters, for the Devil goeth about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour… MARANATHA……..



The following brief article on the use of “ tongues”, or the “ charismata” ( glossolalia) in early Apostolic and sub-Apostolic times, is posted here in order to illustrate the true and the false notions concerning “tongues” which are and have been entertained in more recent times. The Prophet Joel spoke of the “ former” and the “ latter” rain outpouring of the Spirit of God “ to all flesh” ( believing remnant of Israel and then subsequently the Gentile believers from all nations during the early church era). His typology and imagery was taken from the curious meteorological phenomena in Palestine which accorded with the agricultural cycle of sowing, growth, and reaping, and which Joel used to illustrate the fact that the future “ outpouring of the Holy Spirit” on the day of Pentecost, would NOT be a permanent fixture, but would, according to the prophecy of the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 13, soon after the event “ CEASE”. In Palestine, seed sown in the fields depended on good soaking rain to fall in order to “ germinate” or “ establish” the seed for growth. This event was known as the “ former rain”. The “ later rain” was a period near the END of the annual agricultural cycle prior to harvest on which the farmer or peasant relied on to fall and give a “ plentiful harvest” by “ bloating” the seed/corn “ in the ear”. Once again, the rains were considerable, but if they fell DURING the growing season of the plant, ( namely between the former and latter rain downpour periods) they would inevitably destroy the crop, and were regarded as a dearth-causing blight. By the time of Bishop Hippolytus of Porto, nearing the end of the second century A.D., it became apparent that the original “ manifestations” of the charismata with tongues ( given to the Apostles and their early disciples, the last of which died out near the end of the second century A.D.), had CEASED, and that the “germinal church seed” had been fully established in the “ field of the world”. The heretical Montanist movement, however, claimed to be “ continuing” the early charismata, and through the formidable influence of their ablest disciple, Tertullian, the false notion of the continuation of the “ charismata” entered the Catholic Church and was soon embraced by the Western ( Roman) Priesthood and what later came to be called the “ Papacy”. Saint Gregory Nazianzus, when referring to the “ false spirit” of the “ new prophets” ( the Montanists), claimed that the spirit was a demonic one ( from the daemon “ Cybele”), and to be avoided at all costs.. Earlier, in the mid to latter part of the second century, Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon had made the same claims against the then newly emerging Montanist movement and heresy. Montanism became the base for the growing pretensions to “ Papal Infallibility” and the platform upon which doctrines concerning the Roman Catholic supremacy, as well as the so-called teachings about the “ continuation of the charismata/gifts”, would be perpetuated. The fact that there is a “ continuing line” of claimants to the perpetuation of the charismata over the last 1900 years, from Montanus to Mani to Mahommed to the Paulicans to the Cathars and Albigensian heretics to the Franciscan Spirituals to the Anabaptists of Munster to the Rosicrucian sects such as the Quakers and the Shakers and the Mormons to the Irvingite, Welsh, and Azusa Street “ Revivals” and the modern “ Pentecostal and Charismatic” phenomena proves well the false and counterfeit nature of these fake and evil spiritual movements. Like Nadab and Abihu of old, myriads of men and women have kindled an “ evil fire” on the altar of God’s indwelling presence over the last 19 centuries, and continue to do so at their peril. It is our firm belief that “ signs are for the Jew FIRST”, and that no “ latter rain” outpouring can or will occur except “ to the Jew first” during the near yet future time of the return and appearing of Elijah and Enoch; the only two “ witnesses” who have yet to die, and do so at the hands of the final world Emperor Antichrist. All previous manifestations of tongues and the charismata, since the late second century A.D., have been counterfeit manifestations and a “ blight” to the crop of God. They have been little more than a pseudo-christian form of demonic possession and shamanism, and men and women everywhere are warned to flee for their eternal lives these past and present movements which are consuming the Christian world with an “ evil kindled fire”, just as the Montanists of sub-Apostolic days had done, and which their present disciples in the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, continue to do. Christ Himself in the Book of Matthew warned the Christian Church that there would come a movement which would call Him “ Lord, Lord” ( claiming to be “ born again”), and would prophecy and perform works of wonder ( the charismata), to which he exclaims “ Be gone from me, ye who work iniquity; for I never knew you”….. We must all await the soon return of Elijah and Enoch “ to the Jew first” who will inaugurate the TRUE “ latter rain outpouring of Joel”, and restore sanity to the faithful remnant of Christendom and empower the persecuted Church to withstand the coming holocaust of the final Antichrist Emperor and False Prophet, and the treason of false brethren and sisters. May God Almighty have mercy on the believing remnant, and may many be led to Righteousness in Christ in preparation for the looming world-wide persecution…. MARANATHA….

ON THE BIBLICAL TONGUES by Bishop A.R.Faussett from his “ Cyclopedia”

Mar 16:17; Act 2:1-13; Act 10:46; Act 19:6; Act 19:1 Corinthians 12,14. The Alexandrinus manuscript confirms Mar 16:9-20; The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts, omit it; “they shall speak with “new” (“not known before”, kainais) tongues”; this promise is not restricted to apostles; “these signs shall follow them that believe.” a proof to the unbelieving that believers were under a higher power than mere enthusiasm or imagination. The “rushing mighty wind” on Pentecost is paralleled in Eze 1:24; Eze 37:1-14; Eze 43:2; Gen 1:2; 1Ki 19:11; 2Ch 5:14; Psa 104:3-4. The “tongues like as of fire” in the establishing of the New Testament church answer to Exo 19:18, at the giving of the Old Testament law on Sinai, and Eze 1:4 “a fire enfolding itself”; compare Jer 23:29; Luk 24:32.
They were “cloven” (diamerizomenai), rather distributed to them severally. The disciples were “filled with the Holy Spirit”; as John the Baptist and our Lord (Luk 1:15; Luk 4:1). “They began to speak with “other” (heterais, different from their ordinary) tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance.” Then “the multitude were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language; and they marveled saying, Behold are not all these which speak Galileans? and how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born, the wonderful works of God?” This proves that as Babel brought as its penalty the confusion of tongues, so the Pentecostal gift of tongues symbolizes the reunion of the scattered nations. Still praise, not teaching, was the invariable use made of the gift. The places where tongues were exercised were just where there was least need of preaching in foreign tongues (Act 2:1-4; Act 10:46; Act 19:6; Act 19:1 Corinthians 14).
Tongues were not at their command whenever they pleased to teach those of different languages. The gift came, like prophesying, only in God’s way and time (Act 2:1-18; Act 10:46; Act 19:6). No express mention is made of any apostle or evangelist preaching in any tongue save Greek or Hebrew (Aramaic). Probably Paul did so in Lycaonia (Act 14:11; Act 14:15; he says (1Co 14:18) “I speak with tongues (the Vaticanus manuscript, but the Sinaiticus and the Alexandrinus manuscripts ‘with a tongue’) more than ye all.” Throughout his long notice of tongues in 1 Corinthians 14 he never alludes to their use for making one’s self intelligible to foreigners. This would have been the natural use for him to have urged their possessors to put them to, instead of interrupting church worship at home by their unmeaning display.
Papias (in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 30) says Mark accompanied Peter as an “interpreter,” i.e. to express in appropriate language Peter’s thought, so that the gift of tongues cannot have been in Papias’ view a continuous gift with that apostle. Aramaic Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (the three languages over the cross) were the general media of converse throughout the civilised world, owing to Alexander’s empire first, then the Roman. The epistles are all in Greek, not only to Corinth, but to Thessalonica, Philippi, Rome. Ephesus, and Colosse. The term used of “tongues” (apofthengesthai, not only lalein) implies a solemn utterance as of prophets or inspired musicians (Septuagint 1Ch 25:1; Eze 13:9). In the first instance (Acts 2) the tongues were used in doxology; but when teaching followed it was in ordinary language, understood by the Jews, that Peter spoke.
Those who spoke with tongues seemed to beholders as if “full of new wide,” namely, excited and enthusiastic (Act 2:13; Act 2:15-18), in a state raised out of themselves. Hence, Paul contrasts the being “drunk with wine” with being “filled with the Spirit, speaking in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs” (Eph 5:18-19). The ecstatic songs of praise in the Old Testament, poured out by the prophets and their disciples, and the inspired musicians of the sanctuary, correspond (1Sa 10:5-13; 1Sa 19:20-24; 1Ch 25:3). In 1 Corinthians 12 and 1 Corinthians 14 tongues are placed lowest in the scale of gifts (1Co 12:31; 1Co 14:5). Their three characteristics were:
(1) all ecstatic state of comparative rapt unconsciousness, the will being acted on by a power from above;
(2) words uttered, often unintelligible;
(3) languages spoken which ordinarily the speaker could not speak.
They, like prophesyings, were under control of their possessors (1Co 14:32), and needed to be kept in due order, else confusion in church meetings would ensue (1Co 14:23; 1Co 14:39). The tongues, as evidencing a divine power raising them above themselves, were valued by Paul; but they suited the childhood (1Co 14:20; 1Co 13:11), as prophesying or inspired preaching the manhood, of the Christian life. The possessor of the tongue “spoke mysteries,” praying, blessing, and giving thanks, but no one understood him; the “spirit” (pneuma) but not “understanding” (nous) was active (1Co 14:14-19). Yet he might edify himself (1Co 14:4) with a tongue which to bystanders seemed a madman’s ravings, but to himself was the expression of ecstatic adoration. “Five words” spoken “with the understanding” so as to “teach others” are preferable to “ten thousand in an unknown tongue.”
In Isa 28:9-12 God virtually says of Israel, “this people hear Me not though I speak to them in their familiar tongue, I will therefore speak to them in other tongues, namely, that of the foes whom I will send against them, yet even then they will not hearken to Me.” Paul thus applies it: ye see it is a penalty to encouuter men of a strange tongue, yet this you impose on the church by abusing instead of using the tongue intelligibly. Speakers in foreign tongues speak like “children weaned from the milk, with stammering lips,” ridiculous because unintelligible to the hearers (Isa 28:14), or like babbling drunkards (Act 2:13), or madmen (1Co 14:20-23).
Thus, Isaiah (Isa 28:9-14) shows that “tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not.” Tongues either awaken to spiritual attention the unconverted or, if despised, condemn (compare “sign” in a condemnatory sense, Eze 4:3-4; Mat 12:39-42), those who, like Israel, reject the sign and the accompanying message; compare Act 2:8; Act 2:13; 1Co 14:22; “yet, for all that will they not hear Me,” even such miraculous signs fail to arouse them; therefore since they will not understand they shall not understand. “Tongues of men” and “divers kinds of tongues” (1Co 12:10; 1Co 12:28; 1Co 13:1) imply diversity, which applies certainly to languages, and includes also the kind of tongues which was a spiritual language unknown to man, uttered in ecstasy (1Co 14:2). It was only by “interpreting” that the “understanding” accompanied the tongues.
He who spoke (praying) in a tongue should pray that he might (be able to) interpret for edification of the church (1Co 14:13; 1Co 14:26-27). Hebrew and Aramaic words spoken in the spirit or quoted from the Old Testament often produced a more solemn effect upon Greeks than the corresponding Greek terms; Compare 1Co 16:22, Maranatha, 1Co 12:3; Lord of sabaoth, Jam 5:4; Abba, the adoption cry, Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6; Alleluia, Rev 19:1; Rev 19:6; Hosannah, Mat 21:9; Mat 21:15. “Tongues of angels” (1Co 13:1) are such as Daniel and John in Revelation heard; and Paul, when caught up to paradise (2Co 12:4).
An intonation in speaking with tongues is implied in Paul’s comparison to the tones of the harp and pipe, which however he insists have distinction of sounds, and therefore so ought possessors of tongues to speak intelligibly by interpreting their sense afterward, or after awakening spiritual attention by the mysterious tongue they ought then to follow with “revelation, knowledge, prophesying or doctrine” (1Co 14:6-11); otherwise the speaker with a tongue will be “a barbarian,” i.e. a foreigner in language to the hearer. A musical tone would also be likely in uttering hymns and doxologies, which were the subject matter of the utterance by tongues (Act 2:11). The “groanings which cannot be uttered” (Rom 8:26) and the “melody in the heart” (Eph 5:19) show us how even inarticulate speech like the tongues may edify, though less edifying than articulate and intelligible prophesying or preaching.
Either the speaker with a tongue or a listener might have the gift of interpreting, so he might bring forth deep truths from the seemingly incoherent utterances of foreign, and Aramaic, and strange words (1Co 14:7; 1Co 14:11; 1Co 14:13; 1Co 14:27). When the age of miracle passed (1Co 13:8) the tongues ceased with it; the scaffolding was removed, when the building was complete as regards its first stage; hymns and spiritual snugs took the place of tongues, as preaching took the place of prophesying. Like all God’s gifts, tongues had their counterfeit. The latter are morbid, the forerunners or results of disease. The true tongues were given to men in full vigour, preceded by no fanatic madness, and followed by no prostration as the reaction. Practical, healthy religion marked the daily walk of the churches in which the tongues were manifested. Not these, but the confession of Jesus as Lord with heart and tongue was the declared test of real discipleship (1Co 12:3; 1Jo 4:2-3).


Bishop Nemesius of Emesa and True Christian Anthropology and Medicine
Though remaining relatively obscure to subsequent history, Bishop Nemesius of Emesa in Syria, who flourished in the latter part of the 4th century A.D., was in his day an accomplished Christian Philosopher whose influence and teaching was bequeathed to Christian Orthodoxy via the formidable authority of Saint John Damascene.. Nemesius’ only surviving treatise, ” On The Nature of Man” was the major source for John Damascene’s physiologico-anthropological interpretations and views as found in his grand compendium ” On the Orthodox Faith”…

Mixed views were brandished about on Nemesius by all contending sides, none of which have been founded on solid ground.. When we read his work, as a philosopher in the tradition of Justyn Martyr, Nemesius is decidedly Orthodox… Indeed he quotes profusely from Origen, Galen, Plato, Aristotle and Porphyry, but solely for the purpose of denying their wayward speculations on the human nature any validity., or of qualifying and gently correcting their mistaken notions.. With dexterity and aplomb he philosophically strips the philosopher of his yellow robe, and displays him fully in his most vulnerable and naked state..

Yet in all his dexterity Nemesius remains calm and decidedly Christian and Orthodox.. His ” On The Nature of Man” was subsequently regarded as the true teaching, and most accurate basis, upon which an Orthodox understanding of human nature; psychology, pneumatology and physiology, could be based, to which fact Saint John Damascene’s approval of Nemesius unashamedly attests… As the legacy of the Muslim medico-physiological traditions of Avicenna and Averroes gained more and more acceptance in the West, with the revival of Hippocratic Galenism and later on Rosicrucian Paracelsianism, the legacy and memory of Nemesius began to wane and was soon extinguished…

His teachings, however, strike very little common ground with Hippocratic Galenism or Paracelsianism or the speculations of Avicenna and Averroes… Yet it is those very teachings that were for centuries regarded as normative in Christian Orthodoxy… Have things really changed that much to warrant the dismissal of Nemesius? Whose legacy should carry greater weight; the Christian Orthodoxy of Nemesius, or the word of Muslims such as Avicenna and Averroes, and the pagan Hippocrates and Galen, or Rosicrucians such as Paracelsus? Should a revival of Nemesius’ legacy benefit us in not only rediscovering the truth of the human nature and physiological, psychological, and pneumatological theology, but of combating the ” new priesthood” of the medical profession which not only seeks to dominate the health of the body, but now attempts to dominate the health of the mind and soul; both formally the duty and prerogatives of Christian Orthodox Clergy?

Nemesius; rejecting the doctrines of Origen and the Heathen Philosophers, particularly the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, was unjustly classed with the NeoPlatonic school of Ammonias Saccas and Origen ( the Alexandrian School in Egypt), against which school he expended considerable labours for the purpose of refutation. I have commenced to redact into today’s English the first edition of Nemesius ( in English), which was completed and published anonymously in London, 1657, and am including the first Five Sections below with a copy of the title page of the first edition (second printing).
The implications of a possible revival of Bishop Nemesius’ Philosophy are startling, and challenge wholescale the present wayward tenets of modern medicine, and most of the Nominalistic and Scholastic and Rationalistic Theological and Scientific misconceptions which have governed both Western and Eastern thought since the early middle ages; right down to the present day.
It is my intention to complete this small project of rendering the original English translation of Nemesius into a more modern and understandable format, over the coming months, and I would encourage the reader to study Nemesius’ work carefully; weighing every word and concept against the words of Scripture, from which he quotes copiously, and to which Apostolic tradition he remained ever true and entirely devoted.
It seems to me that it is quite impossible to fully grasp the complex Apostolic teachings on psychology, pneumatology, and physiology, without reference to this compendium of anthropological philosophy which the legacy of Nemesius, largely via the works of John of Damascus, has conveyed to the Christian “ lover of the truth”.
In Nemesius, all contradictions regarding anthropology, predestination, and theology in general, are reconciled in such a simple yet pertinent manner, that upon reading the work one is left with the lasting impression that herein lies the very legacy of the Apostles and their disciples; particularly Luke the Physician; the author of the book of Acts and the Gospel of that name.
The somewhat rough draft before us here will no doubt serve as a tasty morsel of “ better things to come”, and so I leave the reader to careful study of Bishop Nemesius’ incredible work: “ The Nature of Man”…. ( P.C./aka “ voxsolus”)

Nemesius, bp. of Emesa
Nemesius (4), bp. of Emesa in the latter half of 4th cent., of whom nothing is certainly known but that he wrote a rather remarkable treatise, περὶ φύσεως ἀνθρώπου, de Natura Hominis, of which cc. ii. and iii. wrongly appear as a separate work, entitled περὶ ψυχῆς, de Anima, among the writings of Gregory Nyssen. Le Quien (Or. Christ. ii. 839) places Nemesius fifth among the bishops of Emesa, between Paul I., who attended the council of Seleucia, a.d. 359, and Cyriacus, the friend of Chrysostom. The date of his writing is tolerably certain from his mentioning the doctrines of Apollinaris and Eunomius and the Origenists, but not those of Nestorius, Eutyches, or Pelagius. He could hardly have avoided mentioning Pelagius if his teaching had been known to him, in the part of his treatise relating to free will. That he was bp. of Emesa is stated in the title of his treatise in the various MS. copies, and by Maximus (ii. 153, ed. Combefis) and Anastasius Sinaita (Quaest. xviii. and xxiv.) in quoting his work. He is also quoted, though without his name, by Joannes Damascenus, Elias Cretensis, Meletius, Joannes Grammaticus, and others. The treatise is an interesting work which will well reward perusal, and has received much praise from able judges of style and matter. Nemesius establishes the immortality of the soul against the philosophers, vindicates free will, opposes fatalism, defends God’s providence, and proves by copious examples the wisdom and goodness of the Deity. He gives indications that he was not ignorant of the circulation of the blood and the functions of the bile (cc. xxiv. xxviii. pp. 242, 260, ed. Matthaei). The best ed. is by C. F. Matthaei (Halae, 1802), reprinted by Migne in Patr. Gk. The treatise has been translated into most modern European languages, into Italian by Pizzimenti (no date), English, G. Wilkes (1636 and 1657), German by Osterhammer (Salzburg, 1819), and French by J. R. Thibault (Paris, 1844). Cf. M. Evangelides, Nemesius und seine Quellen (Berlin, 1882).[E.V.]
( Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature by Wace & Percy)..

To the Reader

Courteous Readers,
This Book, which directs you to the knowledge of your Human Natures, ( which ought to be your continual studies) was Originally written in Greek, by the knowing Pen of Nemesius, surnamed the Philosopher, one of the chiefest Luminaries in the Ancient Church. To praise this Piece, were to derogate from its worth, the Title carrying the best commendation. Censure it if you please; but let your judgements be squared by reason, not biased by common opinions, which commonly raises those things to the greatest, which merit the least estimation.



Of the Nature of Man.

Cap.1. Sect.1.
I. The Definition of Man: A querie touching the Understanding; and the opinions of Plotinus, Apollinarius, Aristotle & Plato concerning the SOUL & BODY of MAN.
II. MAN partaking in somewhat with every Creature, is a medium knitting together the whole Creation, & a manifestation of the Unity of the CREATOR of all things.
III. The Agreement, and comely order of GOD’S Works, of all which MAN is the true Epitome.
Good men, ( and of those not a few) have defined Man to consist of an Understanding Soul and a Body; and so true is this Definition, that it may seem he could not otherwise be, well, defined. Yet, when we term him an Understanding soul, it may appear doubtful to some, whether the Understanding coming to the soul ( as one distinct thing comes to another) did beget Understanding in the Soul; Or, whether the Soul does naturally contain in itself this understanding, as the most excellent part thereof; and, as being the same to the Soul, which the Eye is to the Body.
There be some, ( and of this opinion is Plotinus) who thinking the Soul to be one thing, and the Body another, do therefore affirm, that MAN is composed of these three, a Soul, a Body, and Understanding. Of this mind also was Apollinarius Bishop of Laodicea: For, having laid this as the Foundation of his own opinion, he made the rest of his Building agreeable to the same Groundwork.
Others there are who divide not the Understanding from the Soul in this manner; but suppose rather, that the Understanding is a principal of the Soul’s essence. Aristotle conjectures that a certain potential understanding was made together with MAN, which might become actual in time; and that the Understanding which comes to us from without, ( and whereby we acquire an actual knowledge) pertains not to the actual Essence of the Soul; but, assists in the knowledge and speculation of things: By which means it comes to pass, that very few, or none, but men addicted to the study of Wisdom, are thought capable of this Actual understanding.
PLATO seems to affirm that MAN consists not of a double essence; that is to say, jointly of a Soul and a Body: but rather, that he is a soul, using ( as it were Instrumentally) such a Body: and perhaps by fixing the mind upon that only, which is the most excellent part of Man, he seeks to draw us to such a serious consideration of ourselves ( and of the divine nature) as might win us, the better, to pursue virtue, godliness, and such good things as are in the Soul: or else by persuading that we are ( essentially) nothing else but soul, he would, peradventure, allure us to renounce the desires of the Body, as things not primarily pertinent to MAN as MAN; but, chiefly belonging to him, as he is a living creature; and so, by consequence, appertaining to him as he is a Man, in regard Man is a living-creature.
And it is indeed confessed ( not much otherwise) of all men, that the soul is far more to be esteemed than the body: and that the body is but as it were an Instrument moved by the soul, as is evident in death. For if thereby the soul be divided from the body, it is immediately as much without motion, as a Workman’s Tools when he has cast them aside.
This is manifest that MAN in some things participates with creatures void of life, and that he is partaker also of life, as those living-creatures be, which are unreasonable: and that he is endowed likewise with understanding, as are Creatures reasonable. With inanimate creatures Man partakes in this, that he has a Body, and in his mixture of the four Elements. He agrees with Plants, not only in that which is afore-mentioned, but in having also both a nourishing and a seeding-power. His coherence with unreasonable Creatures ( over and above all the former particulars) is, in having a certain voluntary motion, appetite, anger, and a power enabling him to feel and breathe: for all these are common both to Men and unreasonable creatures. Furthermore, he communicates with Intelligent incorporeal Natures, in reasoning, understanding, judging, and in pursuing virtue and a good life, which is the chief end of all virtues.
These things considered, MAN stands in such a Being as comprehends the sensible and intelligible Nature. In respect of his Bodily powers, and of his Bodily substance ( which is subject unto sense) he agrees both with living-creatures, and with things void of life. In respect of his Reasonable part he communicates with Substances which are bodiless ( or spiritual) as has been said before: For, GOD, the Creator of all things, has seemed by little and little so to collect and knit together sundry differing natures, that all created things should become ONE. And indeed, it will be a manifest proof unto us, that there is but One Creator of all things, if we well consider how fitly he has united the substance of individual things by their particular parts; and all the several species ( throughout the world) by an excellent sympathy.
For, as in every living creature he has joined the parts insensible with such as have sense in them ( as bones, fat, hair, ( and other insensible parts) to the flesh and sinews ( which are sensible) compounding the Living-creature both of sensible and insensible portions; and declaring that all these together make but one living-creature: Even so he has joined one to another, every particular species which was created, by ordering and compounding that agreement and disagreement which is in their natures; In so much that things inanimate do not greatly differ from Plants which have in them a vegitative and nourishing life; neither are Plants wholly differing from sensible living creatures void of reason; nor are those unreasonable creatures so alienated in all things from creatures endowed with reason, as that they have no natural alliance or similitude, whereby they may be linked one to another.
For even in stones ( which are inanimate creatures, not having in them, for the most part, so much as a vegitative life) there is otherwise a certain power, making them to differ from each other even in their stony properties: but the Loadstone seems very far to exceed the nature and virtue of other stones, in that it both attracts Iron thereunto, and also detains it ( being so attracted) as if it would be nourished thereby. Neither does it exercise this virtue upon one piece of Iron alone; but, by that one piece, links fast another, and imparts his own power to all other pieces which are contiguous thereunto: yea Iron draws Iron, when it is touched by the Loadstone.
Moreover, when the CREATOR passed from Plants to living-creatures, he rushed not ( as we may say) all at once, into things whose nature is to remove from place to place; and, to such as are endowed with sense: but, he proceeded, rather, by degrees, and by a natural and most comely progression. For, the Shell-fishes called Pinnae, and Urticae, are so made as if they were certain Plants, having sense in them. For, he fastened them in the Sea with roots, and covered them also with shells as with bark. And, as therein he made them to participate with Plants; so, he gave them likewise ( in some measure) the feeling-sense, which is common to living-creatures. They agree with Plants in being rooted and fixed, and they communicate with living-creatures in their feeling. In like manner the Sponge ( though it be rooted in the Rocks) is of itself, opened and contracted, according as the passanger approaches toward it, or departs from it. And therefore, Wise men have anciently termed such things, in English, “ Life-Plants”, if by a new word I may so name that which is partly a living-creature, and partly a Plant.
After the Fishes called Pinnae, he proceeded unto those, which ( being unable to pass far from their station) do move only to and fro within some certain space, such as are the most part of those, which have shells, and are called the bowels of the earth. He went further, and added ( in the like manner,) something to everything in particular ( as to some things more senses; and to some other, more ability to remove themselves from place to place) and, came next to those unreasonable- creatures which are more-perfect. Those, I call more-perfect-creatures, which have obtained all the senses, and, can also remove themselves to places far distant.
And when GOD passed from unreasonable-creatures to MAN ( a Creature endowed with Reason) he did not perfect him in himself, ( and, as it were, all at once;) but, first, ingrafted into some other living-creatures, certain natural wiles, sleights, and devices for the saving of themselves, which, make them seem to be almost reasonable-creatures: And, having done all this, he, then, brought forth MAN, which is, indeed, the true Reasonable-Creature.
The same Order ( if it be well considered) will appear in the Voice, which from the noise of Horses and Oxen is brought, by little and little, from one plain simple sound, unto the voices of Crows and Nightingales, ( whose voices consist of many notes, can imitate what they are taught) and, so, by degrees it is terminated in the Articulate voice of MAN, which is distinct and perfect.
Furthermore, he made the various expressions of the Tongue to depend upon the Mind, and upon Reason; ordaining the speech to publish forth the motions of the Mind: And, in this wise, by a sweet Musical proportion, he ( collecting all things together) incorporated all into ONE as well, things intelligible, as things visible, and, made MAN as a means thereunto.
Section 2.
I. Why MAN was first made, and why he has in him somewhat of the Nature of all Creatures.
II. II. MAN is the Bounder between visible and Intellectual things, and becomes either an Earthly or Spiritual MAN, according as he is inclined to Good or Evil. A distinction between the Goods of the Mind and Body; and between the life of MAN as he is Man, and as he is merely a living-creature.
III. The opinion of the Hebrews touching the mortality and immortality of MAN.
These things considered, Moses in expressing the Creation of the World, did very properly affirm that MAN was last made. Not only, because all things being made for MAN, it was most convenient, that all such things ought first to be provided, which were necessarily pertinent to his use; and that he who was to have the use of them, should afterward be created: But, in respect both intellectual and visible substances, were created, it seemed also convenient, that One should be made, by whom those two Natures should be so united together, that the whole World might become ONE; and be in its own self so agreeable, that the same might not be at variance, or estranged from itself. Even to this end, was MAN made such a living-creature, as might join together both Natures, and ( to sum up all in a word) therein was manifested the admirable wisdom of the universal CREATOR.
Now MAN being placed ( as it were) in the Bounds between the Reasonable-nature, and that which is Irrational; if he incline to the Body, settling the main part of his affections upon corporeal things; he chooses and embraces the life of unreasonable-creatures; and, for that cause, shall be numbered among them, and be called ( as Saint Paul termed him) An earthly MAN, to whom it shall be thus said, “Earth thou art, and to Earth thou shalt return”: yea by this means he becomes ( as the Psalmist affirms) like the Beast which has no understanding. But, if he incline rather to the Reasonable part, and condemning Bodily lusts and pleasures, shall make choice to follow that blessed and divine life which is most agreeable unto MAN, he shall, then, be accounted a Heavenly MAN, according to that saying; “Such as the earth is, such are they that are earthly; such as the heavenly are, such are they that are heavenly”: and indeed that which principally pertains unto the Reasonable-Nature, is to avoid and oppose Evil, and love and follow that which is Good.
Of God things some are common both to the Soul and to the Body ( of which sort the Virtues are) and these have a relation unto the Soul, in respect of the use which it makes of the Body, being joined thereunto.
Some good things pertain to the soul only, by itself, ( so that it should not need the help of the body) as godliness, and the Contemplation of the nature of things: and therefore so many as are desirous to live the life of MAN as he is a MAN, ( and not only in that he is a living creature) do apply themselves to Virtue and Piety. But we will anon show distinctly what things pertain to Virtue, and what to Piety, when we come to discourse of the Soul and of the Body: For, seeing we do not yet know what our Soul is in respect of the substance thereof, it is not yet convenient for us to treat here, of those things that are wrought by it.
The Hebrews affirm that MAN was made from the beginning, neither altogether mortal, neither wholly immortal, but, as it were, in a state between both those natures, to the end that if he did follow the affections of the body, he should be liable to such alterations which belong to the body; But if he did prefer such good things as pertain to the soul, he should then be honoured with Immortality. For, if GOD had made MAD absolutely mortal from the beginning, he would not have condemned him to die after he had offended; because it had been a thing needless to make him mortal by condemnation, who was mortal before. And on the other side, if he had made Man absolutely immortal, he would not have caused him to stand in need of nourishment; for, nothing that is immortal needs bodily nourishment.
Moreover, it is not to be believed, that God would so hastily have repented himself, and made Him to be forthwith mortal, who was created absolutely immortal: For it is evident that he did not so in the Angels that sinned, but ( according to the nature which they obtained from the beginning) they remained immortal, undergoing for their offences, not the penalty of Death, but of some other punishment. It is better therefore, either to be of the first mentioned opinion touching this matter; or, else, thus to think, that MAN was indeed created mortal, but, yet, in such wise that if he were perfected by a virtuous and pious progression, he might become immortal: that is to say, he was made such a One, as had in him a potential ability to become immortal.

I. Our Author shows why the Tree of knowledge of good and evil was forbidden; &, that it was, at first, expedient for MAN to be ignorant of his own Nature.
II. MAN by the Transgression, attained that knowledge of himself, which diverted him from the way of perfection and Immortality.
III. The Elementary composition and nourishment of Man’s body: The reasons also why it needed feeding, clothing, caring, etc. and why MAN was made a Creature sensible, and capable of Arts and Sciences, etc.

It being inexpedient, rather than any way helpful, for MAN to know his own nature, before he came to his perfection, GOD forbade him to taste of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil: For there were, and doubtless as yet there are very great virtues in Plants; but at the first, ( in respect it was in the beginning of the world’s Creation) their virtues being ( before the curse) pure and void of all mixture, had in them a strong operation: and it is not therefore strange that there should be ( by God’s providence) the taste of a certain Tree, that should have a power given to engender in our first parents, the knowledge of their own nature.
The cause why God would not have MAN to know his own nature, before he had attained to perfection, was this: lest he knowing himself to stand in need of many things should ( as by the sequel we find it manifest) labour only to supply the wants of his Body, and utterly cast away the care of his Soul; and for this cause did God forbid him to taste of the fruit of knowledge of good and evil.
By disobeying this commandment, MAN attained to the knowledge of Himself, but thereby fell from the state of growing to perfection, and busied himself in taking care of such things as the body needed: For ( according to the words of Moses) as soon as he had eaten, He knew that he was naked, and immediately sought about to get a covering for his nakedness: whereas, until then, God kept him as it were in a Trance, and in such case that he knew not himself.
When he fell away from the state of growing to perfection. He fell also from his immortality, which by the mercy of his Creator he shall recover again at the last. In the meantime it was granted him that he should eat flesh ( whereas before his fall, God willed him to be content with such things only as grew out of the earth, all which he had provided for him in Paradise) yea the first means of growing to perfection being become desperate, it was permitted him to feed as he would.
Now, seeing MAN consisted of a Body ( as of one of his parts) and seeing every ( inferior compound) body is composed of the four Elements, it is necessary that such things should happen unto him, as the Elements are subject unto; That is to say, Cutting, mutation and flowing. By mutation I mean mutation in Quality; and I term it Flowing when he is emptied or purged of such things as are in him: For a living-creature has always his evacuations, both by such pores as are manifestly seen, and by such also as we see not; whereof I shall speak hereafter.
It is necessary therefore, that so much should be taken in again, as was evacuated; seeing else, the living-creature would perish through defect of what should re-enter to supply the want: And ( if the things evacuated be either dry, or moist, or spirits) it is as necessary that the living-creature should have a continual supply of dry and moist nourishments, and of spirits.
The meats and drinks which we receive, are made of those Elements, whereof we also are composed: for every thing is nourished with what is agreeable and like unto it, and ( in diseases) we are cured with what is contrary ( to the disease).
There be some of the Elements which we sometime receive into our Bodies immediately of themselves; and sometime use means unto the receiving of them; as for example, we sometime receive water of itself; sometime we use Wine and Oil, and all those that are called moist fruits, as a means to receiving of water. For wine is nothing else but a certain water coming from the Vine, and so or so qualified. In like manner we partake of Fire sometime immediately, as when we are warmed by it; sometime also by the means of such things as we eat and drink: for all things contain in them some portion of Fire, more or less. We are in like case partakers of Air: either immediately when we breathe it, and have it spread round about us, or draw it in by our eating and drinking; or else by means of such other things as we receive into us.
But as for the Earth, we seldom or never receive it immediately, but by certain means. For, we eat the corn which comes of the earth. Larks, Doves, and Partridges feed oftentimes upon the earth; but Man usually feeds on the earth by the means of seeds, fruits, berries, and by the flesh which proceeds from things nourished by the Earth.
And forasmuch as God respecting not only a decency, but also the furnishing of us with a very quick sense of feeling, ( in which man exceeds all other living-creatures) he has clothed us neither with a tough skin as Oxen and other beasts, that have a thick hide; neither with large thick set hair, as goats, hares and sheep; neither with scales, as fishes and serpents; neither with hard shells, as Tortoises and Oysters; neither with a more fleshy bark, as Lobsters; neither with feathers, as birds; and therefore ( wanting these coverings) it is necessary we should have Raiment [Clothing], to supply that in us, which nature has bestowed on other living creatures.
These are the causes why we stand in need of nourishment and clothing: And not only for the same ends are our houses become necessary; but also that we may escape the violence of wild beasts, which is none of their least commodities.
Moreover ( by reason of the distemperature of qualities in the human body) Physicians and their art are likewise needful, that thereby ( as often as occasion requires) those things which are rent asunder, may be fastened again together for the preservation of health. And whereas the alteration consists in the quality, it is necessary that we bring the state of the body to a just temperature by the contrary Quality: For, it is not the Phycian’s purpose ( as some think) to cool the Body which has been in a heat, but to change it into a temperate state; seeing if they should cool it, the disease turns ( not to the health, but) to the contrary sickness.
Now in regard of Arts and Sciences, ( and by the necessary use which we have of such things as they accomplish) it so comes to pass that we need the mutual assistance one of another, and by that need which we have each of other, many of us assembling together in common, do thereby the more conveniently bargain and contract for such things as may serve to supply the necessities of life.
This meeting and dwelling together, was anciently termed by the name of a City; by the near neighbourhood thereof, men received aid and profit by each other’s arts & labours, without the discommodities of long and far Travel. For. Man was naturally made to be such a living-creature, as should be sociable, & delighted in neighbourhood. And forasmuch as men could not otherwise be so conveniently provided of useful things; it is evident that the study of Arts, and the necessity of Traffic [Business] were the first occasions of erecting Cities.


I. Of the two Priviledges which MAN has obtained above all other Creatures, ( viz.) to be capable of the Forgiveness of sins, and Immortality: The Justice and Mercy of GOD in vouchsafing the pardon of sin to MAN, and denying the same to Angels.
II. Man only is a creature capable of learning Arts and Sciences: A Definition of Man, and Reasons justifying every branch of that Definition.
III. The World was not made for the Angels, nor for any other, but MAN only. To him was committed the government of the Universe, with a limitation to use, not abuse the Creatures.

There are also two Priviledges which Man has specially gotten above all other. One is, to obtain pardon by Repentance; the other is that his body being mortal should be brought to immortality. This ( priviledge) of the body, he gets by means of the soul; and the priviledge of the soul, by reason of the body: Yea, among Reasonable creatures, Man only has obtained this Peculiar, that God vouchsafes him the pardon of sin upon repentance: For neither the Devils nor the Angels are vouchsafed pardon, though they do repent.
Hereby the most exact Justice, and admirable mercy, of GOD is both fully proved and evidently declared: For, good cause is there why pardon should not be granted to Angels, though they do repent; because there is nothing in them, which naturally allures or draws them to sin; and in regard also that they ( of their own nature) are free from all passions, wants, and pleasures of the body.
But MAN, though he be endowed with Reason, yet he is also a bodily living creature, and therefore his wants ( in that he is such a living creature) together with his passions, do often blind and captivate his reason. And therefore ( when he returns again by repentance, and applies himself unto virtue) he obtains mercy and forgiveness: For as it is proper to the Essence of MAN to have the ability of laughing ( because it agrees to man only, to all men, and ever to man) so ( in respect of those things, which proceed from the grace of God) it is proper unto Man above all Creatures endued with Reason, to be delivered, by Repentance, from the accusation and guiltiness of all those things wherein he has formerly transgressed. Yea, this Grace is given to MAN only; to all men; and ever to man, during the continuence of his life in this world, and no longer: for after Death there is no more Forgiveness.
Some there be who give a reason why the Angels could no more obtain pardon by repentance after they had fallen; and it is this that follows. The Fall of Angels, was ( as they affirm) a kind of Death unto them; and God vouchsafed them the tender of a pardon before their uter falling away, when like account was to be made of them, as is made of Men during this life: But because they accepted not the grace offered, they received afterward ( as a just reward) punishment everlasting without pardon. And hereby it plainly appears that such as refuse Repentance, do reject that which is a special good gift of God, and peculiar to MAN.
This also is one of the things proper and peculiar unto MAN, that of all other living creatures only the body of MAN should arise again after Death, and aspire to Immortality. This priviledge the body gains in respect of the immortality of the soul; as likewise the soul obtains the other ( that is to say, pardon after Repentance) in respect that the Body, is weak and troubled with many passions.
It is a thing proper also, to MAN only, to learn Arts and Sciences, and to work according unto such Arts: For which cause they who define him, say thus; MAN is a living creature, endued with Reason, mortal, capable of Consideration and Science.
He is termed a living-creature, in that he is a substance having life endued with sense: for, that is the definition of a living-creature.
He is said to be endued with Reason, that he may be distinguished from unreasonable-creatures.
He is called mortal, to make a difference betwixt him and the Reasonable-creatures, that are immortal.
And this clause [capable of Consideration & Science] is added thereunto, because we come to Arts and Sciences by learning of them, having in us naturally a certain potential ability to receive both understanding and Arts; but, not actually attaining them save by study and practice.
There be some, who say that this last clause was lately added to the Definition; and that it had been good enough without the same, were it not, that some bring in their Nymphs, and other petty Deities of those kinds, who are said to live long, and yet not to be immortal; And to distinguish MAN from those, these words, Capable of consideration and science were judged needful; because, none of that sort are thought to learn anything; but, to know naturally, whatsoever they are said to know.
The Jews are of opinion that the whole World was made for MAN ( even immediately for his sake) as Oxen with other beasts for tillage, or to bear burdens; and, as grass was made for the Beasts. For, some things were made for their own sakes; and some for the sakes of others. All reasonable-creatures were made for their own sakes: Unreasonable-creatures and things without life, were ordained for others, not for themselves.
Now if such things were made in respect of others, let us consider for whom they were, indeed, created. Shall we think they were made for the Angels? Doubtless, no wise man will say that they were made for their sakes; because, the things made for the respect or sake of another, must concern either the making, or the continuance, or the recreation of those things for which they were made: For, they are made either in respect of the propagation and succession of their kind; or of their nourishment; or to cover them; or to cure them, or for their better welfare and rest.
Now the Angels need no such things; for they neither have any succession of their kind, neither want clothing, bodily nourishment, nor any thing else: And, if Angels have no need of such things, it is then evident that no other nature having place above the Angels; can have need of them; because by how much higher the place of it is, so much the less need has it of supply or assistance of another.
This being so, we must seek out a Nature which is endued with Reason, and yet needs such things as are aforementioned; and what other nature can be found of that sort, if MAN be passed over? Surely none: And if no other can be discovered, it follows by good reason that both things void of life, and unreasonable-creatures, were made for the sake of MAN; and if they were ordained for him ( as it is evident they were) then, that was likewise the cause why he was constituted the Governor also of those creatures.
Now, it is the duty of a Governor, to use those things which are put under his government, in such manner and measure as need and convenience shall require; and not to abuse them untemperately, or to serve voluptuously his own delicate Appetite. Neither ought he to bear himself tyrannously or ungently towards those whom he governs. For, they that so do ( yea and they that use not mercifully, their unreasonable-cattle) are therein great Offenders; neither performing the part of a Governor, nor of a just man, according to that which is written, “ The just man has compassion upon the life of his Beast”.


I. It is here proved, that neither things without-life, nor the unreasonable-creatures, were made for themselves; First, by arrangements taken from the consideration of the nature and use of things without life.
II. It is proved also by considering those creatures, which are void of reason, and which are ( for the most part) very serviceable to MAN.
III. And lastly, it is proved by considering those things which seem to be rather harmful than profitable to Mankind.

But some perhaps will say, that nothing was made in respect of another but everything in respect of itself. Therefore, distinguishing first between things inanimate and those that have life, let us observe whether things void of life are likely to have been created only for their own sake.
For if those things were made in respect of themselves, how, or upon what should living-creatures feed? We see that Nature out of the earth produces food both of fruits, and of plants, to every living-creature, some few excepted, whose feeding is upon flesh; yea, and those creatures which are nourished by eating flesh, do feed on such beasts as are sustained by eating the fruits of the earth: For, Lions and Wolves, feed on Lambs, Goats, Harts, and Swine. Eagles also, and all sorts of Hawks, devour Partridges, Doves, Hares, and such like; which are fed with what springs out of the ground.
Moreover, the nature of those Fishes which devour one another, does not so extend itself to all fishes, that they do generally devour the flesh of one another; but it breaks off in such as eat weeds and such other things as grow in the water. For, if all sorts of fishes had been inclined to eat the flesh of one another, so that no kind of them could feed on any thing else, but on the flesh of themselves, verily they could not have long continued ( no not for a small time) but would have been utterly destroyed, some of them each by other, and the rest for lack of meat.
To the intent then, that it might not so happen, certain Fishes were so made, that they might abstain from the flesh of the rest, and feed ( if I may so term it) on the grass of the Sea, that, by them, the other sorts of fishes might be preserved. These fishes feed upon weeds; other fishes feed upon them; Those, again, are food for other greater fishes. So, by the feeding on such fishes as last of all do eat the weeds of the Sea, ( which come of the slimy waters) the substance of the rest of the fishes is successively continued.
Having reasonably demonstrated, that the Plants were not created in respect of themselves, but in regard of the nourishment and nature both of Men & of other living-creatures, it will be thereby manifest that such things also were made in respect of Man and other living-creatures, which are means and causes of the increase and preservation of those inferior things: And if that be so, it will be as apparent that the motions of the stars, the firmament, the seasons of the year, the showers, and all such like things, were made in respect of those things without life afore-mentioned, and to the end that nourishment being continually administered unto them, the nature of such fruits might be perpetuated, and that Men and living-creatures also ( for whom those were ordained) might be preserved, by them.
It rests now to consider whether the nature of unreasonable-creatures, was made in respect of itself, or for MAN’S cause: and sure, it cannot but be very absurd, to affirm that things incapable of understanding, and living only by an instinct of Nature( yea, things groveling toward the earth, and by their very shape declaring their bondage) should be brought into the world for their own sake. Much might be spoken to prove the contrary, even so much as would spin out this one point to the length of a Treatise, if I should handle the same at large, and therefore I will briefly mention in this place, those things only which are of greatest weight.
By seriously considering ( as it were in a glass or image) those things which are without us by such things as are within us, we should make a plain demonstration hereof; yea, and by considering the very substance of the things themselves, which are in question. For, if we ponder in our mind that part of our selves, which is irrational, and the parts thereof ( I mean appetite and anger, which are ordained to serve the Reasonable-part) we shall there see, that Reason rules, and that the unreasonable-parts, are ruled; that Reason commands, and that the other are commanded, and serviceable to such uses, as Reason will have them to be subject unto; if MAN preserve that condition which does naturally appertain unto him.
Now then, if our part which is reasonable does bear rule over our unreasonable-parts, which are within us; seems it not much more probable, that our reasonable-part should have dominion over such unreasonable-things as are without us? And that such things were ordained to serve our necessities? Especially seeing it is according to the law of Nature that the unreasonable should be subject to the reasonable, as has been declared by those things which are in our selves?
This may be further manifested, by considering that diverse creatures are made even fit for the necessary services of MAN. For, Oxen and all bearing cattle are naturally fitted for the tillage of the earth, and for bearing of burdens. Sundry other beasts of the field also, and many fishes and fowls, for dainty feeding, yea, and singing birds for our delight and recreation.
And al-beit all things do not always serve to such pleasing uses, but that there are some which may seem rather to harm and destroy man; it is to be considered that when those things were created, the special end of whose creation was at first for man’s service; all other things which might be otherwise useful were then created also, that in the Creation there might be no defect, or want of such things whereof there might be afterward any use.
Neither were such things as are now accounted harmful, exempted utterly from the profitable fruition of man; but he by reason, does, or may, fruitfully employ to his advantage, even the most venomous things. For, he uses poisonous creatures to the curing of such harms as come by those, and other venomous beasts, and to the curing of many infirmities other ways occasioned. Such are the confections called …….( whereof our Triacle is one sort) which reason has invented, that by their own power those things might be made to concur themselves, and procure health and safety ( as it were) from conquered enemies.
Man has also many other things of great virtue given unto him by his Creator, which being contrary to those mischievious things, have in them a power to withstand or qualify their virulent operations; to remedy their hurts, and to defend him from their secret assaults. One thing serves to one use, other things to other uses, and God has so provided that all things should be helpful for the benefit and preservation of Man, yea and some things there be which are serviceable no way else.

SECTION 6…………. ( to be continued)……..







The following ancient Tract on Christ and Antichrist is included here in order to illustrate the extremely advanced state of Eschatological awareness possessed by the Ancient Christian Church, and their perpetual relevance to all subsequent students of the “ End Times”, and the much needed study of the soon return of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, to establish His Father’s Kingdom on a future “renovated” earth. The Tract is here reproduced verbatim with all original notes, and in its entirety, from The “ Ante-Nicene Fathers” Volume Five: “ Fathers of the Third Century: Hippolytus”, translated by the Rev. Alexander Roberts, D.D., and James Donaldson, LL.D., T&T Clark “ American Reprint” edition.

It ought to be noted that Bishop Hippolytus taught, according to the tradition handed down by the Apostles through Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in Gaul ( France), that the Church must pass through the first 3 1/2 years of persecution under the final Antichrist, but be removed ( ” translated”) at the end of these 3 1/2 years and before the time of God’s wrath, which is to be poured out in the subsequent period of 3 1/2 years in fulfillment of the 70th “week of years” of the prophet Daniel’s prophecy to that effect. Victorinus of Pettau, following in the footsteps of Hippolytus and Irenaeus, in his “Commentary of the Apocalypse” written several decades after Hippolytus’ treatise on Christ and Antichrist, unequivocally confirms that the saints ( the Church) will experience the persecution of Antichrist for the first half of the final seven years, but will ” escape” the wrath of God in the second half of this ” week of years”.All three of the above Church Fathers were greatly persecuted due to their avowed premillenialism.                                            



Part II.-Dogmatical and Historical.

Treatise on Christ and Antichrist.

1. As it was your desire, my beloved brother Theophilus,2 to be thoroughly informed on those topics which I put summarily before you, I have thought it right to set these matters of inquiry clearly forth to your view, drawing largely from the Holy Scriptures themselves as from a holy fountain, in order that you may not only have the pleasure of hearing them on the testimony of men,3 but may also be able, by surveying them in the light of (divine) authority, to glorify God in all. For this will be as a sure supply furnished you by us for your journey in this present life, so that by ready argument applying things ill understood and apprehended by most, you may sow them in the ground of your heart, as in a rich and clean soil.4 By these, too, you will be able to silence those who oppose and gainsay the word of salvation. Only see that you do not give these things over to unbelieving and blasphemous tongues, for that is no common danger. But impart them to pious and faithful men, who desire to live holily and righteously with fear. For it is not to no purpose that the blessed apostle exhorts Timothy, and says, “O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called; which some professing have erred concerning the faith.”5 And again, “Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. And the things that thou hast heard of me in many exhortations, the same commit thou to faithful men,6 who shall be able to teach others also.”7 If, then, the blessed (apostle) delivered these things with a pious caution, which could be easily known by all, as he perceived in the spirit that “all men have not faith,”8 how much greater will be our danger, if, rashly and without thought, we commit the revelations of God to profane and unworthy men?

2. For as the blessed prophets were made, so to speak, eyes for us, they foresaw through faith the mysteries of the word, and became ministers of these9 things also to succeeding generations, not only reporting the past, but also announcing I the present and the future, so that the prophet might not appear to be one only for the time being, but might also predict the future for all generations, and so be reckoned a (true) prophet. For these fathers were furnished with the Spirit, and largely honoured by the Word Himself; and just as it is with instruments of music. so had they the Word always, like the plectrum,10 in union with them, and when moved by Him the prophets announced what God willed. For they spake not of their own power11 (let there be no mistake as to that12 ), neither did they declare what pleased themselves. But First of all they were endowed with wisdom by the Word, and then again were rightly instructed in the future by means of visions. And then, when thus themselves fully convinced, they spake those things which13 were revealed by God to them alone, and concealed from all others. For with what reason should the prophet be called a prophet, unless he in spirit foresaw the future? For if the prophet spake of any chance event, he would not be a prophet then in speaking of things which were under the eye of aIl. But one who sets forth in detail things yet to be, was rightly judged a prophet. Wherefore prophets were with good reason called from the very first “seers.”14 And hence we, too, who are rightly instructed in what was declared aforetime by them, speak not of our own capacity. For we do not attempt to made any change one way or another among ourselves in the words that were spoken of old by them, but we make the Scriptures in which these are written public, and read them to those who can believe rightly; for that is a common benefit for both parties: for him who speaks, in holding in memory and setting forth correctly things uttered of old;15 and for him who hears, in giving attention to the things spoken. Since, then, in this there is a work assigned to both parties together, viz., to him who speaks, that he speak forth faithfully without regard to risk,16 and to him who hears, that he hear and receive in faith that which is spoken, I beseech you to strive together with me in prayer to God.

3. Do you wish then to know in what manner the Word of God, who was again the Son of God,17 as He was of old the Word, communicated His revelations to the blessed prophets in former times? Well, as the Word shows His compassion and His denial of all respect of persons by all the saints, He enlightens them18 and adapts them to that which is advantageous for us, like a skilful physician, understanding the weakness of men. And the ignorant He loves to teach, and the erring He turns again to His own true way. And by those who live by faith He is easily found; and to those of pure eye and holy heart, who desire to knock at the door, He opens immediately. For He casts away none of His servants as unworthy of the divine mysteries. He does not esteem the rich man more highly than the poor, nor does He despise the poor man for his poverty. He does not disdain the barbarian, nor does He set the eunuch aside as no man.19 He does not hate the female on account of the woman’s act of disobedience in the beginning, nor does He reject the male on account of the man’s transgression. But He seeks all, and desires to save all, wishing to make all the children of God, and calling all the saints unto one perfect man. For there is also one Son (or Servant) of God, by whom we too, receiving the regeneration through the Holy Spirit, desire to come all unto one perfect and heavenly man.20

4. For whereas the Word of God was without flesh,21 He took upon Himself the holy flesh by the holy Virgin, and prepared a robe which He wove for Himself, like a bridegroom, in the sufferings of the cross, in order that by uniting His own power with our moral body, and by mixing22 the incorruptible with the corruptible, and the strong with the weak, He might save perishing man. The web-beam, therefore, is the pass on of the Lord upon the cross, and the warp on it is the power of the Holy Spirit, and the woof is the holy flesh wrought (woven) by the Spirit, and the thread is the grace which by the love of Christ binds and unites the two in one, and the combs or (rods) are the Word; and the workers are the patriarchs and prophets who weave the fair, long, perfect tunic for Christ; and the Word passing through these, like the combs or (rods), completes through them that which His Father willeth.23

5. But as time now presses for the consideration of the question immediately in hand, and as what has been already said in the introduction with regard to the glory of God, may suffice, it is proper that we take the Holy Scriptures themselves in hand, and find out from them what, and of what manner, the coming of Antichrist is; on what occasion and at what time that implores one shall be revealed; and whence and from what I tribe (he shall come); and what his name is, which is indicated by the number in the Scripture; and how he shall work error among the people, gathering them from the ends of the earth; and (how) he shall stir up tribulation and persecution against the saints; and how he shall glorify himself as God; and what his end shall be; and how the sudden appearing of the Lord shall be revealed froth heaven; and what the conflagration of the whole world shall be; and what the glorious and heavenly kingdom of the saints is to be, when they reign together with Christ; and what the punishment of the wicked by fire.

6. Now, as our Lord Jesus Christ, who is also God, was prophesied of under the figure of a lion,24 on account of His royalty and glory, in the same way have the Scriptures also aforetime spoken of Antichrist as a lion, on account of his tyranny and violence. For the deceiver seeks to liken himself in all things to the Son of God. Christ is a lion, so Antichrist is also a lion; Christ is a king,25 so Antichrist is also a king. The Saviour was manifested as a lamb;26 so he too, in like manner, will appear as a lamb, though within he is a wolf. The Saviour came into the World in the circumcision, and he will come in the same manner. The Lord sent apostles among all the nations, and he in like manner will send false apostles. The Saviour gathered together the sheep that were scattered abroad,27 and he in like manner will bring together a people that is scattered abroad. The Lord gave a seal to those who believed on Him, and he will give one like manner. The Saviour appeared in the form of man, and he too will come in the form of a man. The Saviour raised up and showed His holy flesh like a temple,28 and he will raise a temple of stone in Jerusalem. And his seductive arts we shall exhibit in what follows. But for the present let us turn to the question in hand.

7. Now the blessed Jacob speaks to the following effect in his benedictions, testifying prophetically of our Lord and Saviour: “Judah, let thy brethren praise thee: thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; thy father’s children shall bow down before thee. Judah is a lion’s whelp: from the shoot, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp; who shall rouse him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until he come for whom it is reserved; and he shall be the expectation of the nations. Binding his ass to a vine, and his ass’s colt to the vine tendril; he shall wash his garment in wine, and his clothes in the blood of the grapes. His eyes shall be gladsome as with wine, and his teeth shall be whiter than milk.”29

8. Knowing, then, as I do, how to explain these things in detail, I deem it right at present to quote the words themselves. But since the expressions themselves urge us to speak of them. I shall not omit to do so. For these are truly divine and glorious things, and things well calculated to benefit the soul. The prophet, in using the expression, a lion’s whelp, means him who sprang from Judah and David according to the flesh, who was not made indeed of the seed of David, but was conceived by the (power of the) Holy Ghost, and came forth30 from the holy shoot of earth. For Isaiah says, “There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall grow up out of it.”31 That which is called by Isaiah a flower, Jacob calls a shoot. For first he shot forth, and then he flourished in the world. And the expression, “he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp,” refers to the three days’ sleep (death, couching) of Christ; as also Isaiah says, “How is faithful Sion become an harlot! it was full of judgment; in which righteousness lodged (couched); but now murderers.”32 And David says to the same effect, “I laid me down (couched) and slept; I awaked: for the Lord will sustain me; “33 in which words he points to the fact of his sleep and rising again. And Jacob says, “Who shall rouse him up? “And that is just what David and Paul both refer to, as when Paul says, “and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead.”34

9. And in saying, “A ruler shall not depart from Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until he come for whom it is reserved; and he shall be the expectation of the nations,” he referred the fulfilment (of that prophecy) to Christ. For He is our expectation. For we expect Him, (and) by faith we behold Him as He comes from heaven with power.

10. “Binding his ass to a vine: “that means that He unites His people of the circumcision with His own calling (vocation). For He was the vine.35 “And his ass’s colt to the vine-tendril: “that denotes the people of the Gentiles, as He calls the circumcision and the uncircumcision unto one faith.

11. “He shall wash his garment in wine,” that is, according to that voice of His Father which came down by the Holy Ghost at the Jordan.36 “And his clothes in the blood of the grape.” In the blood of what grape, then, but just His own flesh, which hung upon the tree like a cluster of grapes?-from whose side also flowed two streams, of blood and water, in which the nations are washed and purified, which (nations) He may be supposed to have as a robe about Him.37

12. “His eyes gladsome with wine.” And what are the eyes of Christ but the blessed prophets, who foresaw in the Spirit, and announced beforehand, the sufferings that were to befall Him, and rejoiced in seeing Him in power with spiritual eyes, being furnished (for their vocation) by the word Himself and His grace?

13. And in saying, “And his teeth (shall be) whiter than milk,” he referred to the commandments that proceed from the holy mouth of Christ, and which are pure (purify) as milk.

14. Thus did the Scriptures preach before-time of this lion and lion’s whelp. And in like manner also we find it written regarding Antichrist. For Moses speaks thus: “Dan is a lion’s whelp, and he shall leap from Bashan.”38 But that no one may err by supposing that this is said of the Saviour, let him attend carefully to the matter. “Dan,” he says, “is a lion’s whelp; “and in naming the tribe of Dan, he declared clearly the tribe from which Antichrist is destined to spring. For as Christ springs from the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist is to spring from the tribe of Dan.39 And that the case stands thus, we see also from the words of Jacob: “Let Dan be a serpent, lying upon the ground, biting the horse’s heel.”40 What, then, is meant by the serpent but Antichrist, that deceiver who is mentioned in Genesis,41 who deceived Eve and supplanted Adam (pterni/saj, bruised Adam’s heel)? But since it is necessary to prove this assertion by sufficient testimony, we shall not shrink from the task.

15. That it is in reality out of the tribe of Dan, then, that that tyrant and king, that dread judge, that son of the devil, is destined to spring and arise, the prophet testifies when he says, “Dan shall judge his people, as (he is) also one tribe in Israel.”42 But some one may say that this refers to Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged the people twenty years. Well, the prophecy had its partial fulfilment in Samson, but its complete fulfilment is reserved for Antichrist. For Jeremiah also speaks to this effect: “From Dan we are to hear the sound of the swiftness of his horses: the whole land trembled at the sound of the neighing, of the driving of his horses.”43 And another prophet says: “He shall gather together all his strength, from the east even to the west. They whom he calls, and they whom he calls not, shall go with him. He shall make the sea white with the sails of his ships, and the plain black with the shields of his armaments. And whosoever shall oppose him in war shall fall by the sword.”44 That these things, then, are said of no one else but that tyrant, and shameless one, and adversary of God, we shall show in what follows.

16. But Isaiah also speaks thus: “And it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work upon Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, He will punish (visit) the stout mind, the king of Assyria, and the greatness (height) of the glory of his eyes. For he said, By my strength will I do it, and by the wisdom of my understanding I will remove the bounds of the peoples, and will rob them of their strength: and I will make the inhabited cities tremble, and will gather the whole world in my hand like a nest, and I will lift it up like eggs that are left. And there is no one that shall escape or gainsay me, and open the mouth and chatter. Shall the axe boast itself without him that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify itself without him that shaketh (draweth) it? As if one should raise a rod or a staff, and the staff should lift itself up: and not thus. But the Lord shall send dishonour unto thy honour; and into thy glory a burning fire shall burn. And the light of Israel shall be a fire, and shall sanctify him in flame, and shall consume the forest like grass.”45

17. And again he says in another place: “How bath the exactor ceased, and how hath the oppressor ceased!46 God hath broken the yoke of the rulers of sinners, He who smote the people in wrath, and with an incurable stroke: He that strikes the people with an incurable stroke, which He did not spare. He ceased (rested) confidently: the whole earth shouts with rejoicing. The trees of Lebanon rejoiced at thee, and the cedar of Lebanon, (saying), Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us. Hell from beneath is moved at meeting thee: all the mighty ones, the rulers of the earth, are gathered together-the lords from their thrones. All the kings of the nations, all they shall answer together, and shall say, And thou, too, art taken as we; and thou art reckoned among us. Thy pomp is brought down to earth, thy great rejoicing: they will spread decay under thee; and the worm shall be thy covering.47 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!48 He is cast down to the ground who sends off to all the nations. And thou didst say in thy mind, I will ascend into heaven, I will set my throne above the stars of heaven: I will sit down upon the lofty mountains towards the north: I will ascend above the clouds: I will be like the Most High. Yet now thou shalt be brought down to hell, and to the foundations of the earth! They that see thee shall wonder at thee, and shall say, This is the man that excited the earth, that did shake kings, that made the whole world a wilderness, and destroyed the cities, that released not those in prison.49 All the kings of the earth did lie in honour, every one in his own house; but thou shall be cast out on the mountains like a loathsome carcase, with many who fall, pierced through with the sword, and going down to hell. As a garment stained with blood is not pure, so neither shall thou be comely (or clean); because thou hast destroyed my land, and slain my people. Thou shalt not abide, enduring for ever, a wicked seed. Prepare thy children for slaughter, for the sins of thy father, that they rise not, neither possess my land.”50

18. Ezekiel also speaks of him to the same effect, thus: “Thus saith the Lord God, Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the sea; yet art thou a man, and not God, (though) thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God. Art thou wiser than Daniel? Have the wise not instructed thee in their wisdom? With thy wisdom or with thine understanding hast thou gotten thee power, and gold and silver in thy treasures? By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic51 hast thou increased thy power? Thy heart is lifted up in thy power. Therefore thus saith the Lord God: Because thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God: behold, therefore I will bring strangers52 upon thee, plagues from the nations: and they shall draw their swords against thee, and against the beauty of thy wisdom; and they shall level thy beauty to destruction; and they shall bring thee down; and thou shall die by the death of the wounded in the midst of the sea. Wilt thou yet say before them that slay thee, I am God? But thou art a man, and no God, in the hand of them that wound thee. Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord.”53

19. These words then being thus presented, let us observe somewhat in detail what Daniel says in his visions. For in distinguishing the kingdoms that are to rise after these things, he showed also the coming of Antichrist in the last times, and the consummation of the whole world. In expounding the vision of Nebuchadnezzar, then, he speaks thus: “Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image standing before thy face: the head of which was of fine gold, its arms and shoulders of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, and its legs of iron, (and) its feet part of iron and part of clay. Thou sawest, then, till that a stone was cut out without hands, and smote the image upon the feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to an end. Then were the clay, the iron, the brass, the silver, (and) the gold broken, and became like the chaff from the summer threshing-floor; and the strength (fulness) of the wind carried them away, and there was no place found for them. And the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.”54

20. Now if we set Daniel’s own visions also side by side with this, we shall have one exposition to give of the two together, and shall (be able to) show how concordant with each other they are, and how true. For he speaks thus: “I Daniel saw, and behold the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. The first (was) like a lioness, and had wings as of an eagle. I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it. And behold a second beast like to a bear, and it was made stand on one part, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it.55 I beheld, and lo a beast like a leopard, and it had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl, and the beast had four heads. After this I saw, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; it had iron teeth and claws of brass,56 which devoured and brake in pieces, and it stamped the residue with the feet of it; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it, and it had ten horns. I considered its horns, and behold there came up among them another little horn, and before it there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”57

21. “I beheld till the thrones were set, and the Ancient of days did sit: and His garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like pure wool: His throne was a flame of fire, His wheels were a burning fire. A stream of fire flowed before Him. Thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood around Him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. I beheld then, because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake, till the beast was slain and perished, and his body given to the burning of fire. And the dominion of the other beasts was taken away.”58

22. “I saw in the night vision, and, behold, one like the Son of man was coming with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and was brought near before Him. And there was given Him dominion, and honour, and the kingdom; and all peoples, tribes, and tongues shall serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed.”59

23. Now since these things, spoken as they are with a mystical meaning, may seem to some hard to understand, we shall keep back nothing fitted to impart an intelligent apprehension of them to those who are possessed of a sound mind. He said, then, that a “lioness came up from the sea,” and by that he meant the kingdom of the Babylonians in the world, which also was the head of gold on the image. In saying that “it had wings as of an eagle,” he meant that Nebuchadnezzar the king was lifted up and was exalted against God. Then he says, “the wings thereof were plucked,” that is to say, his glory was destroyed; for he was driven out of his kingdom. And the words, “a man’s heart was given to it, and it was made stand upon the feet as a man,” refer to the fact that he repented and recognised himself to be only a man, and gave the glory to God.

24. Then, after the lioness, he sees a “second beast like a bear,” and that denoted the Persians. For after the Babylonians, the Persians held the sovereign power And in saving that there were “three ribs in the mouth of it,” he pointed to three nations, viz., the Persians, and the Medes, and the Babylonians; which were also represented on the image by the silver after the gold. Then (there was) “the third beast, a leopard,” which meant the Greeks. For after the Persians, Alexander of Macedon obtained the sovereign power on subverting Darius, as is also shown by the brass on the image. And in saying that it had “four wings of a fowl,” he taught us most clearly how the kingdom of Alexander was partitioned. For in speaking of “four heads,” he made mention of four kings, viz., those who arose out of that (kingdom).60 For Alexander, when dying, partitioned out his kingdom into four divisions.

25. Then he says: “A fourth beast, dreadful and terrible; it had iron teeth and claws of brass.” And who are these but the Romans? which (kingdom) is meant by the iron-the kingdom which is now established; for the legs of that (image) were of iron. And after this, what remains, beloved, but the toes of the feet of the image, in which part is iron and part clay, mixed together? And mystically by the toes of the feet he meant the kings who are to arise from among them; as Daniel also says (in the words), “I considered the beast, and lo there were ten horns behind it, among which shall rise another (horn), an offshoot, and shall pluck up by the roots the three (that were) before it.” And under this was signified none other than Antichrist, who is also himself to raise the kingdom of the Jews. He says that three horns are plucked up by the root by him, viz., the three kings of Egypt, and Libya, and Ethiopia, whom he cuts off in the array of battle. And he, after gaining terrible power over all, being nevertheless a tyrant,61 shall stir up tribulation and persecution against men, exalting himself against them. For Daniel says: “I considered the horn, and behold that horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, till the beast was slain and perished, and its body was given to the burning of fire.”62

26. After a little space the stone63 will come from heaven which smites the image and breaks it in pieces, and subverts all the kingdoms, and gives the kingdom to the saints of the Most High. This is the stone which becomes a great mountain, and fills the whole earth, of which Daniel says: “I saw in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and was brought near before Him. And there was given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom; and all peoples, tribes, and languages shall serve Him: and His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed.”64 He showed all power given by the Father to the Son,65 who is ordained Lord of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth, and Judge of all:66 of things in heaven, because He was born, the Word of God, before all (ages); and of things on earth, because He became man in the midst of men, to re-create our Adam through Himself; and of things under the earth, because He was also reckoned among the dead, preaching the Gospel to the souls of the saints,67 (and) by death overcoming death.

27. As these things, then, are in the future, and as the ten toes of the image are equivalent to (so many) democracies,68 and the ten horns of the fourth beast are distributed over ten kingdoms, let us look at the subject a little more closely, and consider these matters as in the clear light of a personal survey.69

28. The golden head of the image and the lioness denoted the Babylonians; the shoulders and arms of silver, and the bear, represented the Persians and Medes; the belly and thighs of brass, and the leopard, meant the Greeks, who held the sovereignty from Alexander’s time; the legs of iron, and the beast dreadful and terrible, expressed the Romans, who hold the sovereignty at present; the toes of the feet which were part clay and part iron, and the ten horns, were emblems of the kingdoms that are yet to rise; the other little horn that grows up among them meant the Antichrist in their midst; the stone that smites the earth and brings judgment upon the world was Christ.

29. These things, beloved, we impart to you with fear, and yet readily, on account of the love of Christ, which surpasseth all. For if the blessed prophets who preceded us did not choose to proclaim these things, though they knew them, openly and boldly, lest they should disquiet the souls of men, but recounted them mystically in parables and dark sayings, speaking thus, “Here is the mind which hath wisdom,”70 how much greater risk shall we run in venturing to declare openly things spoken by them in obscure terms! Let us look, therefore, at the things which are to befall this unclean harlot in the last days; and (let us consider) what and what manner of tribulation is destined to visit her in the wrath of God before the judgment as an earnest of her doom.

30. Come, then, O blessed Isaiah; arise, tell us clearly what thou didst prophesy with respect to the mighty Babylon. For thou didst speak also of Jerusalem, and thy word is accomplished. For thou didst speak boldly and openly: “Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire; your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate as overthrown by many strangers.71 The daughter of Sion shall be left as a cottage in a vineyard, and as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city.”72 What then? Are not these things come to pass? Are not the things announced by thee fulfilled? Is not their country, Judea, desolate? Is not the holy place burned with fire? Are not their walls cast down? Are not their cities destroyed? Their land, do not strangers devour it? Do not the Romans rule the country? And indeed these impious people hated thee, and did saw thee asunder, and they crucified Christ. Thou art dead in the world, but thou livest in Christ.

31. Which of you, then, shall I esteem more than thee? Yet Jeremiah, too, is stoned. But if I should esteem Jeremiah most, yet Daniel too has his testimony. Daniel, I commend thee above all; yet John too gives no false witness. With how many mouths and tongues would I praise you; or rather the Word who spake in you! Ye died with Christ; and ye will live with Christ. Hear ye, and rejoice; behold the things announced by you have been fulfilled in their time. For ye saw these things yourselves first, and then ye proclaimed them to all generations. Ye ministered the oracles of God to all generations. Ye prophets were called, that ye might be able to save all. For then is one a prophet indeed, when, having announced beforetime things about to be, he can afterwards show that they have actually happened. Ye were the disciples of a good Master. These words I address to you as if alive, and with propriety. For ye hold already the crown of life and immortality which is laid up for you in heaven.73

32. Speak with me, O blessed Daniel. Give me full assurance, I beseech thee. Thou dost prophesy concerning the lioness in Babylon;74 for thou wast a captive there. Thou hast unfolded the future regarding the bear; for thou wast still in the world, and didst see the things come to pass. Then thou speakest to me of the leopard; and whence canst thou know this, for thou art already gone to thy rest? Who instructed thee to announce these things, but He who formed75 thee in (from) thy mother’s womb?76 That is God, thou sayest. Thou hast spoken indeed, and that not falsely. The leopard has arisen; the he-goat is come; he hath smitten the ram; he hath broken his horns in pieces; he hath stamped upon him with his feet. He has been exalted by his fall; (the) four horns have come up from under that one.77 Rejoice, blessed Daniel! thou hast not been in error: all these things have come to pass.

33. After this again thou hast told me of the beast dreadful and terrible. “It had iron teeth and claws of brass: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it.”78 Already the iron rules; already it subdues and breaks all in pieces; already it brings all the unwilling into subjection; already we see these things ourselves. Now we glorify God, being instructed by thee.

34. But as the task before us was to speak of the harlot, be thou with us, O blessed Isaiah. Let us mark what thou sayest about Babylon. “Come down, sit upon the ground, O virgin daughter of Babylon; sit, O daughter of the Chaldeans; thou shalt no longer be called tender and delicate. Take the millstone, grind meal, draw aside thy veil,79 shave the grey hairs, make bare the legs, pass over the rivers. Thy shame shall be uncovered, thy reproach shall be seen: I will take justice of thee, I will no more give thee over to men. As for thy Redeemer, (He is) the Lord of hosts, the Holy One of Israel is his name. Sit thou in compunction, get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans: thou shall no longer be called the strength of the kingdom.

35. “I was wroth with my people; I have polluted mine inheritance, I have given them into thine hand: and thou didst show them no mercy; but upon the ancient (the elders) thou hast very heavily laid thy yoke. And thou saidst, I shall be a princess for ever: thou didst not lay these things to thy heart, neither didst remember thy latter end. Therefore hear now this, thou that art delicate; that sittest, that art confident, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and there is none else; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children. But now these two things shall come upon thee in one day, widowhood and the loss of children: they shall come upon thee suddenly in thy sorcery, in the strength of thine enchantments mightily, in the hope of thy fornication. For thou hast said, I am, and there is none else. And thy fornication shall be thy shame, because thou hast said in thy heart, I am. And destruction shall come upon thee, and thou shalt not know it. (And there shall be) a pit, and thou shalt full into it; and misery shall fall upon thee, and thou shalt not be able to be made clean; and destruction shall come upon thee, and thou shalt not know it. Stand now with thy enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, which thou hast learned from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to be profited. Thou art wearied in thy counsels. Let the astrologers of the heavens stand and save thee; let the star-gazers announce to thee what shall come upon thee. Behold, they shall all be as sticks for the fire; so shall they be burned, and they shall not deliver their soul from the flame. Because thou hast coals of fire, sit upon them; so shall it be for thy help. Thou art wearied with change from thy youth. Man has gone astray (each one) by himself; and there shall be no salvation for thee.”80 These things does Isaiah prophesy for thee. Let us see now whether John has spoken to the same effect.

36. For he sees, when in the isle Patmos, a revelation of awful mysteries, which he recounts freely, and makes known to others. Tell me, blessed John, apostle and disciple of the Lord, what didst thou see and hear concerning Babylon? Arise, and speak; for it sent thee also into banishment.81 “And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters; with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. And he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet-coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold, and precious stone,82 and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations and filthiness83 of the fornication of the earth. Upon her forehead was a name written, Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth.

37. “And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration. And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and the ten horns. The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder (whose name was not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world) when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet shall be.84

38. “And here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not ye come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the beast that was and is not, (even he is the eighth,) and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with Him are called, and chosen, and faithful.

39. “And he saith to me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues. And the ten horns which thou sawest, and85 the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil His will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

40. “After these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory. And he cried mightily86 with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues: for her sins did cleave even unto heaven,87 and God hath remembered her l iniquities.

41. “Reward her even as she rewarded (you), and double unto her double, according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled, fill to her double. How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow. Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her. And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication, and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning, standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas! that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come. And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man shall buy their merchandise88 any more. The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and spices,89 and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and goats,90 and horses, and chariots, and slaves (bodies), and souls of men. And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly have perished91 from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. The merchants of these things, which were made rich92 by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, and saying, Alas, alas! that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls! for in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off, and cried, when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto this great city? And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas! that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her fatness!93 for in one hour is she made desolate.

42. “Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye angels,94 and apostles, and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her. And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. And the voice of harpers and musicians, and of pipers and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; and the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived. And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.”95

43. With respect, then, to the particular judgment in the torments that are to come upon it in the last times by the hand of the tyrants who shall arise then, the clearest statement has been given in these passages. But it becomes us further diligently to examine and set forth the period at which these things shall come to pass, and how the little horn shall spring up in their midst. For when the legs of iron have issued in the feet and toes, according to the similitude of the image and that of the terrible beast, as has been shown in the above, (then shall be the time) when the iron and the clay shall be mingled together. Now Daniel will set forth this subject to us. For he says, “And one week will make96 a covenant with many, and it shall be that in the midst (half) of the week my sacrifice and oblation shall cease.”97 By one week, therefore, he meant the last week which is to be at the end of the whole world of which week the two prophets Enoch and Elias will take up the half. For they will preach 1, 260 days clothed in sackcloth, proclaiming repentance to the people and to all the nations.

44. For as two advents of our Lord and Saviour are indicated in the Scriptures, the one being His first advent in the flesh, which took place without honour by reason of His being set at nought, as Isaiah spake of Him aforetime, saying, “We saw Him, and He had no form nor comeliness, but His form was despised (and) rejected (lit. = deficient) above all men; a man smitten and familiar with bearing infirmity, (for His face was turned away); He was despised, and esteemed not.”98 But His second advent is announced as glorious, when He shall come from heaven with the host of angels, and the glory of His Father, as the prophet saith, “Ye shall see the King in glory;
99 and, “I saw one like the Son of man coming with the clouds of heaven; and he came to the Ancient of days, and he was brought to Him. And there were given Him dominion, and honour, and glory, and the kingdom; all tribes and languages shall serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away.”100 Thus also two forerunners were indicated. The first was John the son of Zacharias, who appeared in all things a forerunner and herald of our Saviour, preaching of the heavenly light that had appeared in the world. He first fulfilled the course of forerunner, and that from his mother’s womb, being conceived by Elisabeth, in order that to those, too, who are children from their mother’s womb he might declare the new birth that was to take place for their sakes by the Holy Ghost and the Virgin.

45. He, on hearing the salutation addressed to Elisabeth, leaped with joy in his mother’s womb, recognising God the Word conceived in the womb of the Virgin. Thereafter he came forward preaching in the wilderness, proclaiming the baptism of repentance to the people, (and thus) announcing prophetically salvation to the nations living in the wilderness of the world. After this, at the Jordan, seeing the Saviour with his own eye, he points Him out, and says, “Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world!”101 He also first preached to those in Hades,102 becoming a forerunner there when he was put to death by Herod, that there too he might intimate that the Saviour would descend to ransom the souls of the saints from the hand of death.

46. But since the Saviour was the beginning of the resurrection of all men, it was meet that the Lord alone should rise from the dead, by whom too the judgment is to enter for the whole world, that they who have wrestled worthily may be also crowned worthily by Him, by the illustrious Arbiter, to wit, who Himself first accomplished the course, and was received into the heavens, and was set down on the right hand of God the Father, and is to be manifested again at the end of the world as Judge. It is a matter of course that His forerunners must appear first, as He says by Malachi and the angel,103 “I will send to you Elias the Tishbite before the day of the Lord, the great and notable day, comes; and he shall turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, lest I come and smite the earth utterly.”104 These, then, shall come and proclaim the manifestation of Christ that is to be from heaven; and they shall also perform signs and wonders, in order that men may be put to shame and turned to repentance for their surpassing wickedness and impiety.

47. For John says, “And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.”105 That is the half of the week whereof Daniel spake. “These are the two olive trees and the two candlesticks standing before the Lord of the earth. And if any man will hurt them, fire will proceed out of their mouth, and devour their enemies; and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy; and have power over waters, to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues as often as they will. And when they shall have finished their course and their testimony,” what saith the prophet? “the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them,”106 because they will not give glory to Antichrist. For this is meant by the little horn that grows up. He, being now elated in heart, begins to exalt himself, and to glorify himself as God, persecuting the saints and blaspheming Christ, even as Daniel says, “I considered the horn, and, behold, in the horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things; and he opened his mouth to blaspheme God. And that born made war against the saints, and prevailed against them until the beast was slain, and perished, and his body was given to be burned.”107

48. But as it is incumbent on us to discuss this matter of the beast more exactly, and in particular the question how the Holy Spirit has also mystically indicated his name by means of a number, we shall proceed to state more clearly what bears upon him. John then speaks thus: “And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns, like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he exercised all the power of the first beast before him; and he made the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he did great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast, saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast which had the wound by a sword and did live. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. And he caused all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand or in their forehead; and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast; for if is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred threescore and six.”108

49. By the beast, then, coming up out of the earth, he means the kingdom of Antichrist; and by the two horns he means him and the false prophet after him.109 And in speaking of “the horns being like a lamb,” he means that he will make himself like the Son of God, and set himself forward as king. And the terms, “he spake like a dragon,” mean that he is a deceiver, and not truthful. And the words, “he exercised all the power of the first beast before him, and caused the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed,” signify that, after the manner of the law of Augustus, by whom the empire of Rome was established, he too will rule and govern, sanctioning everything by it, and taking greater glory to himself. For this is the fourth beast, whose head was wounded and healed again, in its being broken up or even dishonoured, and partitioned into four crowns; and he then (Antichrist) shall with knavish skill heal it, as it were, and restore it. For this is what is meant by the prophet when he says, “He will give life unto the image, and the image of the beast will speak.” For he will act with vigour again, and prove strong by reason of the laws established by him; and he will cause all those who will not worship the image of the beast to be put to death. Here the faith and the patience of the saints will appear, for he says: “And he will cause all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand or in their forehead; that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, the name of the beast, or the number of his name.” For, being full of guile, and exalting himself against the servants of God, with the wish to afflict them and persecute them out of the world, because they give not glory to him, he will order incense-pans110 to be set up by all everywhere, that no man among the saints may be able to buy or sell without first sacrificing; for this is what is meant by the mark received upon the right hand. And the word-“in their forehead”-indicates that all are crowned, and put on a crown of fire, and not of life, but of death. For in this wise, too, did Antiochus Epiphanes the king of Syria, the descendant of Alexander of Macedon, devise measures against the Jews. He, too, in the exaltation of his heart, issued a decree in those times, that “all should set up shrines before their doors, and sacrifice, and that they should march in procession to the honour of Dionysus, waving chaplets of ivy; “and that those who refused obedience should be put to death by strangulation and torture. But he also met his due recompense at the hand of the Lord, the righteous Judge and all-searching God; for he died eaten up of worms. And if one desires to inquire into that more accurately, he will find it recorded in the books of the Maccabees.111

50. But now we shall speak of what is before us. For such measures will he, too, devise, seeking to afflict the saints in every way. For the prophet and apostle says: “Here is wisdom, Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred threescore and six.” With respect to his name, it is not in our power to explain it exactly, as the blessed John understood it and was instructed about it, but only to give a conjectural account of it;112 for when he appears, the blessed one will show us what we seek to know. Yet as far as our doubtful apprehension of the matter goes, we may speak. Many names indeed we find,113 the letters of which are the equivalent of this number: such as, for instance, the word Titan,114 an ancient and notable name; or Evanthas,115 for it too makes up the same number; and many others which might be found. But, as we have already said,116 the wound of the first beast was healed, and he (the second beast) was to make the image speak,117 that is to say, he should be powerful; and it is manifest to all that those who at present still hold the power are Latins. If, then, we take the name as the name of a single man, it becomes Latinus. Wherefore we ought neither to give it out as if this were certainly his name, nor again ignore the fact that he may not be otherwise designated. But having the mystery of God in our heart, we ought in fear to keep faithfully what has been told us by the blessed prophets, in order that when those things come to pass, we may be prepared for them, and not deceived. For when the times advance, he too, of whom these thing are said, will be manifested.118

51. But not to confine ourselves to these words and arguments alone, for the purpose of convincing those who love to study the oracles of God, we shall demonstrate the matter by many other proofs. For Daniel says, “And these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.”119 Ammon and Moab120 are the children born to Lot by his daughters, and their race survives even now. And Isaiah says: “And they shall fly in the boats of strangers, plundering the sea together, and (they shall spoil) them of the east: and they shall lay hands upon Moab first; and the children of Ammon shall first obey them.”121

52. In those times, then, he shall arise and meet them. And when he has overmastered three horns out of the ten in the array of war, and has rooted these out, viz., Egypt, and Libya, and Ethiopia, and has got their spoils and trappings, and has brought the remaining horns which suffer into subjection, he will begin to be lifted up in heart, and to exalt himself against God as master of the whole world. And his first expedition will be against Tyre and Berytus, and the circumjacent territory. For by storming these cities first he will strike terror into the others, as Isaiah says, “Be thou ashamed, O Sidon; the sea hath spoken, even the strength of the sea hath spoken, saying, I travailed not, nor brought forth children; neither did I nurse up young men, nor bring up virgins. But when the report comes to Egypt, pain shall seize them for Tyre.”122

53. These things, then, shall be in the future, beloved; and when the three horns are cut off, he will begin to show himself as God, as Ezekiel has said aforetime: “Because thy heart has been lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God.”123 And to the like effect Isaiah says: “For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of heaven: I will be like the Most High. Yet now thou shall be brought down to hell (Hades), to the foundations of the earth.”124 In like manner also Ezekiel: “Wilt thou yet say to those who slay thee, I am God? But thou (shall be) a man, and no God.”125

54. As his tribe, then, and his manifestation, and his destruction, have been set forth in these words, and as his name has also been indicated mystically, let us look also at his action. For he will call together all the people to himself, out of every country of the dispersion, making them his own, as though they were his own children, and promising to restore their country, and establish again their kingdom and nation, in order that he may be worshipped by them as God, as the prophet says: “He will collect his whole kingdom, from the rising of the sun even to its setting: they whom he summons and they whom he does not summon shall march with him.”126 And Jeremiah speaks of him thus in a parable: “The partridge cried, (and) gathered what he did not hatch, making himself riches without judgment: in the midst of his days they shall leave him, and at his end he shall be a fool.”127

55. It will not be detrimental, therefore, to the course of our present argument, if we explain the art of that creature, and show that the prophet has not spoken128 without a purpose in using the parable (or similitude) of the creature. For as the partridge is a vainglorious creature, when it sees near at hand the nest of another partridge with young in it, and with the parent-bird away on the wing in quest of food, it imitates the cry of the other bird, and calls the young to itself; and they, taking it to be their own parent, run to it. And it delights itself proudly in the alien pullets as in its own. But when the real parent-bird returns, and calls them with its own familiar cry, the young recognise it, and forsake the deceiver, and betake themselves to the real parent. This thing, then, the prophet has adopted as a simile, applying it in a similar manner to Antichrist. For he will allure mankind to himself, wishing to gain possession of those who are not his own, and promising deliverance to all, while he is unable to save himself.

56. He then, having gathered to himself the unbelieving everywhere throughout the world, comes at their call to persecute the saints, their enemies and antagonists, as the apostle and evangelist says: “There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man: and there was a widow in that city, who came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary. And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her.”129

57. By the unrighteous judge, who fears not God, neither regards man, he means without doubt Antichrist, as he is a son of the devil and a vessel of Satan. For when he has the power, he will begin to exalt himself against God, neither in truth fearing God, nor regarding the Son of God, who is the Judge of all. And in saying that there was a widow in the city, he refers to Jerusalem itself, which is a widow indeed, forsaken of her perfect, heavenly spouse, God. She calls Him her adversary, and not her Saviour; for she does not understand that which was said by the prophet Jeremiah: “Because they obeyed not the truth, a spirit of error shall speak then to this people and to Jerusalem.”130 And Isaiah also to the like effect: “Forasmuch as the people refuseth to drink the water of Siloam that goeth softly, but chooseth to have Rasin and Romeliah’s son as king over you: therefore, lo, the Lord bringeth up upon you the water of the river, strong and full, even the king of Assyria.”131 By the king he means metaphorically Antichrist, as also another prophet saith: “And this man shall be the peace from me, when the Assyrian shall come up into your land, and when he shall tread in your mountains.”132

58. And in like manner Moses, knowing beforehand that the people would reject and disown the true Saviour of the world, and take part with error, and choose an earthly king, and set the heavenly King at nought, says: “Is not this laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my treasures? In the day of vengeance I will recompense (them), and in the time when their foot shall slide.”133 They did slide, therefore, in all things, as they were found to be in harmony with the truth in nothing: neither as concerns the law, because they became transgressors; nor as concerns the prophets, because they cut off even the prophets themselves; nor as concerns the voice of the Gospels, because they crucified the Saviour Himself; nor in believing the apostles, because they persecuted them. At all times they showed themselves enemies and betrayers of the truth, and were found to be haters of God, and not lovers of Him; and such they shall be then when they find opportunity: for, rousing themselves against the servants of God, they will seek to obtain vengeance by the hand of a mortal man. And he, being puffed up with pride by their subserviency, will begin to despatch missives against the saints, commanding to cut them all off everywhere, on the ground of their refusal to reverence and worship him as God, according to the word of Esaias: “Woe to the wings of the vessels of the land,134 beyond the rivers of Ethiopia: (woe to him) who sendeth sureties by the sea, and letters of papyrus (upon the water; for nimble messengers will go) to a nation135 anxious and expectant, and a people strange and bitter against them; a nation hopeless and trodden down.”136

59. But we who hope for the Son of God are persecuted and trodden down by those unbelievers. For the wings of the vessels are the churches; and the sea is the world, in which the Church is set, like a ship tossed in the deep, but not destroyed; for she has with her the skilled Pilot, Christ. And she bears in her midst also the trophy (which is erected) over death; for she carries with her the cross of the Lord.137 For her prow is the east, and her stern is the west, and her hold138 is the south, and her tillers are the two Testaments; and the ropes that stretch around her are the love of Christ, which binds the Church; and the net139 which she bears with her is the layer of the regeneration which renews the believing, whence too are these glories. As the wind the Spirit from heaven is present, by whom those who believe are sealed: she has also anchors of iron accompanying her, viz., the holy commandments of Christ Himself, which are strong as iron. She has also mariners on the right and on the left, assessors like the holy angels, by whom the Church is always governed and defended. The ladder in her leading up to the sailyard is an emblem of the passion of Christ, which brings the faithful to the ascent of heaven. And the top-sails140 aloft141 upon the yard are the company of prophets, martyrs, and apostles, who have entered into their rest in the kingdom of Christ.

60. Now, concerning the tribulation of the persecution which is to fall upon the Church from the adversary, John also speaks thus: “And I saw a great and wondrous sign in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. And she, being with child, cries, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered. And the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. And she brought forth a man-child, who is to rule all the nations: and the child was caught up unto God and to His throne. And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath the place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days. And then when the dragon saw it, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man-child. And to the woman were given two wings of the great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. And the serpent cast (out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood. And the earth helped the woman, and opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast) out of his mouth. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the saints of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus.”142

61. By the woman then clothed with the sun,” he meant most manifestly the Church, endued with the Father’s word,143 whose brightness is above the sun. And by the “moon under her feet” he referred to her being adorned, like the moon, with heavenly glory. And the words, “upon her head a crown of twelve stars,” refer to the twelve apostles by whom the Church was founded. And those, “she, being with child, cries, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered,” mean that the Church will not cease to bear from her heart144 the Word that is persecuted by the unbelieving in the world. “And she brought forth,” he says, “a man-child, who is to rule all the nations; “by which is meant that the Church, always bringing forth Christ, the perfect man-child of God, who is declared to be God and man, becomes the instructor of all the nations. And the words, “her child was caught up unto God and to His throne,” signify that he who is always born of her is a heavenly king, and not an earthly; even as David also declared of old when he said, “The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at my right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.”145 “And the dragon,” he says, “saw and persecuted the woman which brought forth the man-child. And to the woman were given two wings of the great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.”146 That refers to the one thousand two hundred and threescore days (the half of the week) during which the tyrant is to reign and persecute the Church,147 which flees from city to city, and seeks conceal-meat in the wilderness among the mountains, possessed of no other defence than the two wings of the great eagle, that is to say, the faith of Jesus Christ, who, in stretching forth His holy hands on the holy tree, unfolded two wings, the right and the left, and called to Him all who believed upon Him, and covered them as a hen her chickens. For by the mouth of Malachi also He speaks thus: “And unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in His wings.”148

62. The Lord also says, “When ye shall see the abomination of desolation stand in the holy place (whoso readeth, let him understand), then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains, and let him which is on the housetop not come down to take his clothes; neither let him which is in the field return back to take anything out of his house. And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved.”149 And Daniel says, “And they shall place the abomination of desolation a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand two hundred and ninety-five days.”150

63. And the blessed Apostle Paul, writing to the Thessalonians, says: “Now we beseech you, brethren, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together at it,151 that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letters as from us, as that the day of the Lord is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means; for (that day shall not come) except there come the falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped: so that he sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now letteth (will let), until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that wicked be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus shall consume with the Spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming: (even him) whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”152 And Esaias says, “Let the wicked be cut off, that he behold not the glory of the Lord.”153

64. These things, then, being to come to pass, beloved, and the one week being divided into two parts, and the abomination of desolation being manifested then, and the two prophets and forerunners of the Lord having finished their course, and the whole world finally approaching the consummation, what remains but the coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ from heaven, for whom we have looked in hope? who shall bring the conflagration and just judgment upon all who have refused to believe on Him. For the Lord says, “And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh.”154 “And there shall not a hair of your head perish.”155 “For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.”156 Now the fall157 took place in paradise; for Adam fell there. And He says again, “Then shall the Son of man send His angels, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds of heaven.”158 And David also, in announcing prophetically the judgment and coming of the Lord, says, “His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and His circuit unto the end of the heaven: and there is no one hid from the heat thereof.”159 By the heat he means the conflagration. And Esaias speaks thus: “Come, my people, enter thou into thy chamber, (and) shut thy door: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation of the Lord be overpast.”160 And Paul in like manner: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth of God in unrighteousness.”161

65. Moreover, concerning the resurrection and the kingdom of the saints, Daniel says, “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, (and some to shame and everlasting contempt).”162 Esaias says, “The dead men shall arise, and they that are in their tombs shall awake; for the dew from thee is healing to them.”163 The Lord says, “Many in that day shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.”164 And the prophet says, “Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.”165 And John says, “Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power.”166 For the second death is the lake of fire that burneth. And again the Lord says, “Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun shineth in his glory.”167 And to the saints He will say, “Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.”168 But what saith He to the wicked? “Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels, which my Father hath prepared.” And John says, “Without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever maketh and loveth a lie; for your part is in the hell of fire.”169 And in like manner also Esaias: “And they shall go forth and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me. And their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be for a spectacle to all flesh.”170

66. Concerning the resurrection of the righteous, Paul also speaks thus in writing to the Thessalonians: “We would not have you to be ignorant concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive (and) remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice and trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive (and) remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall we ever be with the Lord.”171

67. These things, then, I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself,172 in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou mayest keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men, “looking for that blessed hope and appearing of our God and Saviour,”173 when, having raised the saints among us, He will rejoice with them, glorifying the Father. To Him be the glory unto the endless ages of the ages. Amen.




  1. Gallandi, Bibl. vet. Patr., 2. p. 417, Venice, 1765.
  2. Perhaps the same Theophilus whom Methodius, a contemporary of Hippolytus, addresses as Epiphanius. [See vol. vi., this series.] From his introduction, too, it is clear that they are in error who take this book to be a homily. (Fabricius.)
  3. In the text the reading is twn ontwn, for which twn wtwn = of the ears, is proposed by some, and anqrwpwn = of men, by others. In the manuscripts the abbreviation anwn is often found for anqrwpwn.
  4. In the text we find wj piwn kaqara gh, for which grammar requires wj pioni kaqara gh. Combefisius proposes wsper oun kaqara gh = as in clean ground. Others would read wj puron, etc., = like a grain in clean ground.
  5. 1 Tim. 6. 20, 21.
  6. This reading, paraklhsewn for marturwn (= witnesses), which is peculiar to Hippolytus alone, is all the more remarkable as so thoroughly suiting Paul’s meaning in the passage.
  7. 2 Tim. 2. 1, 22.
  8. 2 Thess. 3. 2.
  9. The text reads atina = which. Gudius proposes tina = some.
  10. The plectrum was the instrument with which the lyre was struck. The text is in confusion here. Combefisius corrects it, as we render it, ooganwn dikhn hnwmenon exontej en eautoij.
  11. 2 Pet. 1. 21.
  12. The text reads mh planw (= that I may not deceive). Some propose wj planoi = as deceivers. 
  13. This is according to the emendation of Combefisius. [And note this primitive theory of inspiration as illustrating the words, “who spake by the prophets,” in the Nicene Symbol.]
  14. 1 Sam. 9. 9.
  15. In the text it is prokeimena (= things before us or proposed to us), for which Combefisius proposes, as in our rendering, proeirhmena.
  16. The original is akindunon.
  17. Isa. 42. 1; Matt. 12. 18. The text is auto palin o tou qeou pai. See Macarius, Dininitas D. N. S. C., book 4. ch. 13. p. 460, and Grabe on Bull’s Defens. fid. Nic., p. 101.
  18. Reading autouj for auton.
  19. [Isa. 56. 3, 44.]
  20. Eph. 4. 13.
  21. The text has wn = being, for which read hn = was.
  22. micaj. Thomassin, De Incarnatione Verbi, 3. 5, cites the most distinguished of the Greek and Latin Fathers, who taught that a mingling ( commistio), without confusion indeed, but yet most thorough, of the two natures, is the bond and nexus of the personal unity.
  23. [This analogy of weaving is powerfully employed by Gray (” Weave the warp, and weave the woof,” etc.). See his Pindaric ode, The Bard.] 
  24. Rev. 5. 5; [also Gen. 49. 8. See below, 7, 8]
  25. John 18. 37.
  26. John 1. 29.
  27. John 11. 52.
  28. John 2. 19.
  29. Gen. 49. 8-12.
  30. The text has toutou-proerxomenou, for which we read, with Combefisius, proerxomenon.
  31. Isa. 11. 1.
  32. Isa. 1. 21.
  33. Ps. 3. 5.
  34. Gal. 1. 1.
  35. John 15. 1.
  36. The text gives simply, thn tou agiou. etc., = the paternal voice of the Holy Ghost, etc. As this would seem to represent the Holy Ghost as the Father of Christ, Combefisius proposes, as in our rendering, kata thn dia tou agiou, etc. The wine, therefore, is taken as a figure of His deity, and the garment as a figure of His humanity; and the sense would be, that He has the latter imbued with the former in a way peculiar to Himself-even as the voice at the Jordan declared Him to be the Father’s Son, not His Son by adoption, but His own Son, anointed as man with divinity itself.
  37. The nations are compared to a robe about Christ, as something foreign to Himself, and deriving all their gifts from Him. 
  38. Deut. 33. 22.
  39. [See Irenaeus, vol. 1. p. 559. Dan’s name is excepted in Rev. vii., and this was always assigned as the reason. The learned Calmet ( sub voce Dan) makes a prudent reflection on this idea. The history given in Judg. 18. is more to the purpose.]
  40. Gen. 49. 17.
  41. Gen. 3. 1.
  42. Gen. 49. 16.
  43. Jer. 8. 16.
  44. Perhaps from an apocryphal book, as also below in ch. liv.
  45. Isa. 10. 12 – 17.
  46. epispoudasthj.
  47. katakalumma; other reading, kataleimma = remains.
  48. Lit., that risest early. 
  49. The text gives epagwgh. Combefisius prefers apagwgh = trial.
  50. Isa. 14. 4-21.
  51. i.e., according to the reading, emporia. The text is empeiria = experience.
  52. There is another reading, limouj (= famines) twn eqnwn.
  53. Ezek. 28. 2-10.
  54. Dan. 2. 31-35.
  55. Combefisius adds, “between the teeth of it; and they said thus to it, Arise, devour much flesh.”
  56. Combefisius inserted these words, because he thought that they must have been in the vision, as they occur subsequently in the explantation of the vision (v. 19).
  57. Dan. 7. 2-8. 
  58. Dan. 7. 9-12.
  59. Dan. 7. 13, 14.
  60. See Curtius, 10. 10. That Alexander himself divided his kingdom is asserted by Josephus Gorionides (iii.) and Cyril of Jerusalem ( Catech., 4, De Sacra Scriptura) and others.
  61. For omwj = nevertheless, Gudius suggests wmoj = savage.
  62. Dan. 7. 21, 11.
  63. Dan. 2. 34, 45.
  64. Dan. 7. 13, 14.
  65. Matt. 28. 18.
  66. Phil. 2. 10.
  67. 1 Pet. 3. 19.
  68. [Deserving of especial note. Who could have foreseen the universal spirit of democracy in this century save by the light of this prophecy? Comp. 2 Tim. 3. 1-3.] 
  69. ofqalmofanwj.
  70. Rev. 17. 9.
  71. For upo pollwn Combefisius has upo lawn = by peoples.
  72. Isa. 1. 7, 8.
  73. 2 Tim. 4. 8.
  74. Dan. 7. 4.
  75. For plasaj Gudius proposes agiasaj (sanctified) or kalesaj(called).
  76. Jer. 1. 5.
  77. Dan. 8. 2-8.
  78. Dan. 7. 6. 
  79. For anacurison others read anakaluyai = uncover.
  80. Isa. 47. 1-15.
  81. [Note this token, that, with all his prudence, he identifies “Babylon” with Rome.]
  82. “Stones,” rather.
  83. ta akaqarta, for the received akaqartothtoj.
  84. kai parestai, for the received kaiper esti. 
  85. kai, for the received epi.
  86. isxura for en isxui.
  87. ekollhqhsan, for the received hkolouqhsan.
  88. agorasei, for the received agorazei.
  89. amwmon, omitted in the received text.
  90. kai tragouj, omitted in the received text.
  91. apwleto, for the received aphlqen.
  92. ploutisantej, for the received plouthsantej.
  93. piothtoj, for the received timiothtoj.
  94. kai oi aggeloi, which the received omits.
  95. Rev. xvii., Rev. 18. 
  96. diaqhsei = will make; others, dunamwsei = will confirm.
  97. Dan. 9. 27.
  98. Isa. 53. 2-5.
  99. Isa. 33. 17.
  100. Dan. 7. 13, 14.
  101. John 1. 29.
  102. It was a common opinion among the Greeks, that the Baptist was Christ’s forerunner also among the dead. See Leo Allatius, De libris Eccles. Graecorum, p. 303.
  103. Or it may be, “Malachi, even the messenger.” Aggelou is the reading restored by Combefisius instead of Aggaiou. The words of the angel in Luke 1. 17 (” and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just “) are thus inserted in the citation from Malachi; and to that Hippolytus may refer in the addition “and the angel.” Or perhaps, as Combefisius rather thinks, the addition simply refers to the meaning of the name Malachi, viz., messenger.
  104. Mal. 4. 5, 6.
  105. Rev. 11. 3. 
  106. Rev. 11. 4-6.
  107. Dan. 7. 8, 9.
  108. Rev. 13. 11-18.
  109. The text is simply kai ton met auton = the false prophet after him. Gudius and Combefisius propose as above, kai auton te kai ton met auton, or met autou = him and the false prophet with him.
  110. pureia = censers, incense-pans, or sacrificial tripods.This offering of incense was a test very commonly proposed by the pagans to those whose religion they suspected.
  111. [Not referred to as Scripture, but as authentic history.] 
  112. oson monon uponohsai.
  113. isoyhfa.
  114. Teitan. Hippolytus here follows his master Irenaeus, who in his Contra Haeres., 5. go, § 3, has the words,” Titan…et antiquum et fide degnum et regale…nomen” = Titan… both an ancient and good and royal… name. [See this series, vol. 1. p. 559.]
  115. /Eanqaj, mentioned also by Irenaeus in the passage already referred to.
  116. proefqhmen, the reading proposed by Fabricius instead of proefhmen.
  117. poihsei, Combef. epoihse.
  118. [Let us imitate the wisdom of our author, whose modest commentary upon his master Irenaeus cannot be too much applauded. The mystery, however, does seem to turn upon something in the Latin race and its destiny.]
  119. Dan. 11. 41.
  120. Gen. 19. 37, 38.
  121. Isa. 11. 14.
  122. Isa. 23. 4, 5.
  123. Ezek. 28. 2.
  124. Isa. 14. 13-15.
  125. Ezek. 28. 9.
  126. Quoted already in chap. 15. as from one of the prophets.
  127. Jer. 17. 11. 
  128. Reading apefhnato for apekrinato.
  129. Luke 18. 2-5.
  130. Jer. 4. 11.
  131. Isa. 8. 6, 7.
  132. Mic. 5. 5. The Septuagint reads auth = And (he) shall be the peace to it. Hippolytus follows the Hebrew, but makes the pronoun feminine, auth referring to the peace. Again Hippolytus reads orh = mountains, where the Septuagint has xwran = land, and where the Hebrew word = fortresses or palaces. [He must mean that “the Assyrian” = Antichrist. “The peace” is attributable only to the “Prince of peace.” So the Fathers generally.]
  133. Deut. 32. 34, 35.
  134. ouai ghj ploiwn pterugej.
  135. metewpon.
  136. Isa. 18. 1, 2.
  137. Wordsworth, reading wj iston for wj ton, would add, like a mast. See his Commentary on Acts 27. 40.
  138. kutoj, a conjecture of Combefisius for kuklon. 
  139. linon, proposed by the same for ploion, boat.
  140. yhfaroi, a term of doubtful meaning. May it refer to the karxhsia?
  141. The text reads here ainoumenoi, for which airoumenoi is proposed, or better, hwroumenoi.
  142. Rev. 12. 1-6, etc.
  143. ton Aogon ton IIatraon.
  144. gennwsa ek kardiaj.
  145. Ps. 110. 1.
  146. Rev. 11. 3.
  147. [Concerning Antichrist, two advents, etc., see vol. 4. p. 219, this series]
  148. Mal. 4. 2. 
  149. Matt. 24. 15-22; Mark 13. 14-20; Luke 21. 20-23.
  150. Dan. 11. 31, Dan. 12. 11, 12. The Hebrew has 1,335 as the number in the second verse.
  151. Hippolytus reads here ep authj instead of ep auton, and makes the pronoun therefore refer to the coming.
  152. 2 Thess. 2. 1-11.
  153. Isa. 26. 10.
  154. Luke 21. 28.
  155. Luke 21. 18.
  156. Matt. 24. 27, 28.
  157. The word ptwma, used in the Greek as = carcase, is thus interpreted by Hippolytus as = fall, which is its literal sense.
  158. Matt. 24. 31.
  159. Ps. 19. 6.
  160. Isa. 26. 20.
  161. Rom. 1. 17.
  162. Dan. 12. 2.
  163. Isa. 26. 19.
  164. John 5. 25.
  165. Eph. 5. 14. Epiphanius and others suppose that the words thus cited by Paul are taken from the apocryphal writings of Jeremiah: others that they are a free version of Isa. 60. 1. [But their metrical form justifies the criticism that they are a quotation from a hymn of the Church, based, very likely, on the passage from Isaiah.]
  166. Rev. 20. 6.
  167. Matt. 13. 43.
  168. Matt. 25. 34. 
  169. Rev 22. 15.
  170. Isa. 66. 24.
  171. 1 Thess. 4. 12.
  172. [The immense value of these quotations, authenticating the Revelations and other Scriptures, must be apparent. Is not this treatise a voice to our own times of vast significance?]
  173. Tit. 2. 13.