“ WILL THE RABBIS’ ISRAEL PLEASE REMAIN SILENT”
When the Nominalistically-trained Augustinian Monk, Martin Luther, nailed his 95 theses to the Castle Church Door at Wittenburg in 1517, the “ Replacement Theology” battle cry was sounded throughout Europe. The call, under the screen of theological emancipation, was actually for the REUNIFICATION of EUROPE; “ humpty-dumpty” was about to be put together again by all the king’s ( emperor’s) men.. It was a movement of political ( NOT doctrinal) emancipation… Theology was the popular medium, whereas the goal was entirely political… The battles waged until this time between the Popes and the Emperors; the Ghibbelines and the Guelphs, had served their purpose, and the mutual cheek-slapping was finally to turn in favour of the Pope’s faithful “ sons”; the Emperors… The onus for this new European Union would NOT fall on German shoulders, however, but on much more devious shoulders; that of Calvinist Geneva..
John Calvin ( Chauvin), a Jewish convert to Luther’s Nominalistic “ new Constantinian Augustinianism” ( the Reformation), basing his theories of predestination on Augustine of Hippo, and possibly the Jewish Rabbinical exegetes Rashi and Maimonides, laid the final doctrinal foundation for “Replacement Theology” that would shortly afterwards embrace the perennial “ search and quest” to restore the “ scattered remnants of the tribes of Israel” ( deemed now to be discoverable in Western Europe.. Rashi and Maimonides (otherwise known as Ramban), the famous Rabbinical exegetes, had both written centuries earlier that the remnants of the scattered tribes of Israel were to be found in Europe, whereas until that time the tribes were known to exist in not only the regions of ancient Media and Persia, but particularly Afghanistan, Lebanon, Yemen, Bactria, India and Tartary).. From Calvinist Geneva would go forth the call to European Unification under the headship of a newly-revived 10-Kingdom European Beast; the “ Reformed Roman Empire”; a 10-horned Beastly Empire that would intentionally actually use Replacement Theology in the name of the scattered Israelite Tribes, in order to COUNTERFEIT the location of the 10 actual “ Lost Tribes” of Israel, and thereby kill off any hopes of a FULL National Jewish restoration in Palestine, and by usurpation convey ALL the prophecies belonging to the nation of Israel to the Reformed Church.. Proof of this early “ Replacement Theology” identification of the Lost Tribes of Israel with the Aryan/Celtic/British nations by John Calvin and Theodore Beza at Geneva, is forever embedded in their “ notes to the Geneva Bible” on the Prophet Obadiah; verse 20 ( note “p”).
“….And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel [shall possess] that of the (p) Canaanites, [even] unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which [is] in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south.
(p) By the Canaanites, the Jews mean the Dutchmen, and by Zarephath, France, and by Sepharad, Spain…..” ( Geneva Bible Notes to Obadiah verse:20)
The following quotations are from the website “ Hebrew Nations”; a Jewish British-Israelite website promoting the works of Yair Davidiy. They style themselves as “Brit-Am”…. Nevertheless, though opponents of truth, the quotes are accurate, and serve to confirm the above statements regarding Calvin’s links with the belief that the Aryan/Celtic/British nations were of Israelite descent… The reason why Holland is known as “Holy-Land” is due to this widespread Reformed belief that the area of the “ Dutchmen” ( ie: northern Europe) was the new “ promised land”, or “ Holy Land” of “ Canaan”…
“.…. What Direct Rabbinical Evidence is There?
Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1040 -1105, Champagne, France) on Obadiah 1:20 says:
“The first exile of the children of Israel who were exiled from the Ten Tribes to the land of Canaanites unto Zarephath…The exegetes say that Zarephath means the Kingdom called `France’ in common language..”
There are those (e.g. Kountrass) who understood Rashi to be referring to the Jews of France or Germany as being descended from the Ten Tribes.
Rashi is BEST understood as referring to the Ten Tribes as Brit-Am understands them to be.
Collating and Comparing other Great revered Commentators (Iben Ezra, Radak, Abarbanel, etc) we compiled the following Composite explanation that encompasses all major opinions of the Commentators and is consistent with the spirit of their approach and with Scripture:
AND THIS FIRST EXILE OF THE TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL [Rashi] WHO DWELL FROM GERMANY [=CANAANITES, Iben Ezra] AND HOLLAND [Jewish sources quoted by Calvin], EVEN UNTO FRANCE [=ZAREPHATH, Rashi, Iben Ezra, Radak, Abarbanel, Daat Sofrim] AND ENGLAND [= ZAREPHATH, Abarbanel] ….
(William F. Dankenbring:)
Famed Rabbi Moses Maimonides, in 1131 A.D., declared, “I believe the ten tribes
to be in various parts of West Europe.”
And Dr. Moses Margoliouth, a Jewish scholar, wrote, “It may not be out of place
to state that the Isles afar off mentioned in the 31st chapter of Jeremiah were supposed by the ancients to be Brittania, Scotia and Hibernia (Ireland) . . . I believe that the old Cornish was a dialect of Hebrew as is Gaelic, Welsh and Breton.”
(Yair Davidiy “Geographical Proof”)
AND THE CAPTIVITY OF THIS HOST OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL SHALL POSSESS THAT OF THE CANAANITES, EVEN UNTO ZAREPHATH; AND THE CAPTIVITY OF JERUSALEM, WHICH IS IN SEPHARAD, SHALL POSSESS THE CITIES OF THE SOUTH.
According to the Commentators, in the above verse Canaanites means Germany, Zarephath means France, or France and Britain, or France and the region to the north of France, or all of the said areas together. Sepharad means Spain. The verse should be rendered from the Hebrew original and in accordance with the Major Commentators as the following:
AND THIS FIRST EXILE OF THE TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL [Rashi] WHO DWELL FROM GERMANY [=CANAANITES, Iben Ezra] AND HOLLAND [Jewish sources quoted by Calvin], EVEN UNTO FRANCE [=ZAREPHATH, Rashi, Iben Ezra, Radak, Abarbanel, Daat Sofrim] AND ENGLAND [= ZAREPHATH, Abarbanel] AND THE CAPTIVITY OF THE JEWS OF JERUSALEM IN SPAIN [=SEPHARAD, Targum Yehonatan] SHALL POSSESS THE CITIES OF THE SOUTH.
Taking the Classical Commentators as a whole we see that the Lost Ten Tribes were considered to be in the west, especially in France and Britain. According to the Geneva Bible of Calvin on Obadiah 1:20:
“By the Canaanites, the Jews mean the Dutchmen, and by Zarephath, France, and by Sepharad Spain.”
At all events Zarephath meant France (Rashi) and the north or France and Britain (Abarbanel) together. The verse was understood as saying that the Lost Ten tribes were in Zarephath (Rashi, Nachmanides)……”
For those who are wondering how Rabbinical exegetes such as Rashi and Ramban could possibly believe the above to be true, we must realize that this was the ancient teaching of the Hermetic KABBALISTS, and the Rabbis of the middle ages were greatly tainted by Kabbalistic speculations… The Kabbalah was bequeathed to the Jewish Rabbis by the Essenes, who were Disciples of Pythagoras, the “ Founder of modern Freemasonry” and the “ Father of modern Philosophy”.. Pythagoras was in turn a disciple of ZARATHUSHT, whom the Greeks knew as Zoroaster, and the Hebrews as Nimrod of “ Tower of Babylon” fame… Zoroaster was the great predecessor of Pythagoras, and lays claim to being the ORIGINATOR of philosophical speculation among the heathen nations. The Kabbalistic tradition is intimately associated with the Hermetic tradition of Huram Abiff ( Hermes Trismegistus); an occult tradition that was passed down through secret mystery schools such as the Essenes and the various brotherhoods and craft guilds of the dark and middle ages which furthered Arian and Gnostic teachings/ heresies.. Following is a copious excerpt from McClintock’s “ Cyclopedia” on “ Cabala”, which will serve well to illustrate the connection between the ancient mystery schools, Rabbinic Judaism of the middle ages, and the revival of Hermeticism during the Renaissance….
the title of the celebrated system of religious philosophy, or more properly theosophy, which has played so important a part in the theological and exegetical literature of both Jews and Christians ever since the Middle Ages. The following account of it is partly compiled from Herzog’s Real-Encylclopadie.
I. The Name. — KABBALA (from the Hebrews קִבָּלָה Kabbala’ the received), properly denotes reception, then a doctrine received by oral tradition. The term is thus in itself nearly equivalent to ““transmission,” like the Latin traditio-Massora, for which last, indeed, the Talmud makes it interchangeable in the statement, “Moses received (קַבֵּל) the Law of Mount Sinai, and transmitted (מָסִר) it to Joshua.” The difference betweenit, however, and the word מִסּוֹרָה (from מָסִר, to deliver) is, that the former expresses the act of receiving, while the latter denotes the act of giving over, surrendering, transmitting. The Cabala is also called by some חָכְמָה נַסְתְּרָה, secret wisdom, because it pretends to be a very ancient and secret tradition, and ןח, grace, from the initials of these two words.
The term Kabbalah is employed in the Jewish writings to denote several traditional doctrines; as, for example, that which constituted the creed of the patriarchal age before the giving of the law; that unwritten ritual interpretation which the Jews believe was revealed by God to Moses on the mount, and which was at length committed to writing and formed the Mishna. Besides being applied to these and other similar traditions, it has also been used in, comparatively speaking, modern times, to denote a singular mystic mode of interpreting the Old Testament.
We are reminded by this indefinite title that among the Jews, as throughout the greater part of the East, human knowledge, whether historical or scientific, rested principally on a sort of succession, and the best claim for its reception was an unbroken chain of traditionary evidence. Hence the care with which Judaism established the regular consecution of the sacred custodians of truth, from Moses through Joshua and the so-called greater prophets, thence through Ezra and “the Great Synagogue” to the teachers of later times, subdividing at length into the various schools or period of particular rabbis and their hereditary adherents. While, therefore, the truth was gradually exhibited in the writings of the Law, the Prophets, and the Talmud, the Cabala indicates the verbal exposition of these, orally transmitted along with them, and not generally known to the people, but containing a deeper or more thoroughly initiated style of instruction. It thus came ultimately to designate a particular theologico-philosophical system, that arose and established itself in the bosom of Judaism, yet in a measure independent of, or rather supplementary to it.
II. Original Documents. — Instruction in Judaism being principally verbal and founded on memory, its phases of development could necessarily leave but little mark on history; and as such a philosophy would thus naturally, in process of time, become a mystery, at least in the view of posterity, the origin and progress of the Cabala are yet largely matters of conjecture, and it is even a subject of scientific controversy whether in its speculative form it can be distinctly traced earlier than the Middle Ages, although its leading principles appear to have been derived from ancient documents, the nature of which is still very imperfectly understood, such as the so-called revelations of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Ezra, etc. The Talmud, indeed (both in the Mishna and Gemara of the tract Chagiga, passim), makes mention of a doctrine imparted only to a few carefully selected persons, and even applies to it certain fanciful names (drawn from the phraseology of Gen 1:1, and Eze 1:1), significant respectively of a speculative cosmology and a speculative theology; but it is uncertain whether these designate definite treatises, or, if so, whether these have in any identifiable form descended to modern times. The only works which can with any propriety claim to embody these earliest views are the following two, that became the acknowledged texts of the Cabala in the latter part of the Middle Ages; a third cabalistic treatise (called the סֵפֶר בָּחַיר, Sepher Bachir, or Choice Book), which is found in an edition of Amst. 1651, and attributed to a rabbi, Nechoniah Ben-Hakana, of the first century, has long ago been generally acknowledged to be fictitious, although a cabalistic work of the same title is mentioned as early as the fourteenth century.
The first of these is the Book of Creation (יְצַירָה סֵפֶר, Sepher Yetsirah, often reprinted, as ed. Steph. Rittangel, Amst.1642, with a Latin translation and commentary; and the ed. of J.F. van Meyer, with a German translation and commentary, Leipz.1830,4to), ascribed to the renowned rabbi Akiba (A.D.120). It is a rather short treatise, in oracular sentences, the language of which, more obscure in import than in form, does not resemble the Hebrew of the Mishna. As a book of the same title appears to be already mentioned in the Gemara, where wonderful power is ascribed to it, and as R. Saadias is said to have commented upon it as early as the tenth century, it is certain that we can ascend to a considerable antiquity in tracing its authority.
The other and more important cabalistic text is the celebrated Book of Light (סֵפֶר הִזּוהִר, Sepherhaz-Zohar, from Dan 12:3), first printed at Cremona and Mantua in 1560, and since often reprinted, ‘as at Sulzbach in 1684, fol., with various additions. Tradition ascribes this work to a contemporary of R. Akiba, namely, R. Simeon Ben Jochai, a teacher much praised in the Talmud for his great wisdom and legal knowledge, although nothing is there said directly of his writings. Incredulous criticism considers it as a production of the thirteenth century, the time of its first appearancein the history of literature, and ascribes it to a Spanish Jew, Moses of Leon. It appears, however, to be older than this, having probably originally appeared piecemeal in the East at intervals, the whole being completed inits present form about the eighth century. It includes certain special tracts or treatises, in which the author seems especially to develop his own sentiments, and which form, so to speak, the kernel of the science sought to be imparted. Three of these are designated by particular names (The Book of Confidence, and the Greater and Less Collections); the popular distinction made by the Jews, however, between a great and a small Zohar sometimes refers to the varying fullness of the editions merely. SEE ZOHAR.
III. Fundamental Doctrines. — These are somewhat differently expounded in the above-named books (to the separate articles on which the reader is therefore referred for full particulars), and most at large in the latter. The following, however, is a summary of the cabalistic views as expressed in the general writings of later authors of that school:
1. Nature of the Deity.— God is above everything, even above being and thinking. It cannot, therefore, be said of him that he has either a will, intention, desire, thought, language, or action, since these properties, which adorn man, have limits, whereas God is in every way boundless, because he is perfect. Owing to this boundlessness of his nature, which necessarily implies absolute unity and immutability, and that there is nothing without him, i:e. that the τὸ πλαν is in him, he is called EN-SOPH=without end, boundless, and can neither be comprehended by the intellect nor described with words, for there is nothing which can grasp and depict him to us.
[ The doctrine of the En-Soph is NOT to be found in the Sepher Yetzirah, but only in the Zohar related literature and tradition. It is the basis of mysticism, both Jewish and Christian, including the speculations of pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite; the founder of modern mysticism. It is very close to the position embraced by the Nominalist Philosophical Tradition, particularly the so-called “ unknowability of God” as edumbrated by William of Ockham ( @ 1300-1349 AD) and his philosophical school in Europe, of which Martin Luther and the Reformers were disciples. The fact that the Sepher Yetzirah omits it, is a good indication that, being of a great antiquity, the teachings of the Sepher Yetzirah preceed the modern Kabbalistic speculations, and may infact belong to a genuine Abrahamic tradition in opposition to that of the Zoroastrian Kabbalistic tradition. Occultism often attempts to embrace traditions that are infact opposed to it, such as the Bible, and in my opinion, this is the case with the abuse of the Sepher Yetzirah by the later Kabbalists of the Zoroastrian tradition. P.C.]
In this incomprehensibility or boundlessness, God, or the En- Soph (אֵין סוֹ), is in a certain sense not existent (אִיַן); since, as far as our mind is concerned, that which is incomprehensible does not exist. Hence, without making himself comprehensible, his existence could never have been known. He had, therefore, to become active and creative in order that his existence might become perceptible.
2. Development of the Deity. — But since, on the one hand, the will to create, which implies limit, and the circumscribed and imperfect nature of this world, preclude the idea of taking it as the direct creation of him who can have no will, nor produce anything but what is like himself, boundless and perfect; and since, on the other hand, the beautiful design and order displayed in the world, which plainly indicate an intelligent and active will, forbid us to regard it as the offspring of chance, the En-Soph must be viewed as the Creator of the world in an indirect manner, through the medium of ten “Sephiroth” or intelligences, which emanated from the En- Soph. The etymology and exact meaning of the word are obscure. It is the plur. סְפִירוֹת, sephiroth’, of , סְפַירָה, which R. Asariel, the first Cabalist, derives from סָפִר, saphar’, to number; while later Cabalists derive it from סִפַּיר, sappir’, the sapphire, from the word מְסִפְּרַיס, “declare,” in Psa 19:1, or even from the Greek σφαῖραι, spheres.
From his infinite fullness of light the En-Soph sent forth at first one spiritual substance or intelligence; this intelligence, which existed in the En- Soph from all eternity, and which became a reality by a mere act, contained the nine other intelligences or Sephiroth. Great stress is laid upon the fact that the first Sephirah was not created, but was simply an emanation (אֲצַילָה); and the difference between creation and emanation is thus defined, that in the former a diminution of strength takes place, while in the latter this is not the case. From the first Sephirah emanated the second, from the second the third, from the third the fourth, and so on, one proceeding from the other, till the number ten. These ten Sephiroth form among themselves, and with the En-Soph, a strict unity, ani simply represent different aspects of one and the same Being, just as the flame and sparks which proceed from the fire, and which appear different things to the eye, form only different manifestations of the same fire. Differing thus from each other simply as different colors of the same light, all the ten emanations alike partake of the En-Soph. They are boundless, and yet constitute the first finite things; so that they are both infinite and finite.They are infinite and perfect, like the En-Soph, when he imparts his fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them. The finite side of the emanation of the Sephiroth is absolutely necessary, for thereby the incomprehensible En-Soph makes his existence known to the human intellect, which can only grasp that which has measure, limit, and relation. From their finite side the Sephiroth may even be called bodily, and this renders it possible for the En-Soph, who is immanent in them, to assume a bodily form.
3. Forms of this Development. — The ten Sephiroth, every one of which has its own name, are divided into three groups of three Sephiroth each, respectively operating upon the three worlds, viz, the world of intellect (עוֹלָם הִשֵּׂכֶל), the world of souls (עוֹלָם הִנֶּפֶשׁ), and the world of matter (עוֹלָם הִטָּבַעִ). 1. The first group operates upon the intellectual world, and consists of Sephiroth 1, denominated כֶּתֶר, or רוּם מִצֲלָה, the crown,or the inscrutable height; 2, called חָכְמָה, the creative Wisdom , 3, called בַּינָה, the conceiving intellect. The result of the combination of the latter two (as “father” and “mother”) is likewise represented as דּ — עִת, or knowledge, i.e. concrete thought, the universe of mind, the effect ofλόγος. 2. The second group exercises its power upon the moral world, and consists of Sephiroth 4, called הֶסֶד, infinite grace (also גְּדוּלָח, greatness); 5, called דַּין, or גְּבוּרָה, divine justice, or judicial power; and 6, which is called תִּפְאֶרֶת, beauty, and is the connecting link between the opposite Sephiroth 4 and 5. 3. The third group exercises its power upon the material world, and consists of Sephiroth 7, called נֶצִח, firmness; 8,called הוּר, splendor; and 9, which is called יְסוֹד, the primary foundation, and is the connecting link between the two opposite Sephiroth, 7 and 8. Sephirah 10 is called מִלְבוּת, kingdom, and denotes Providence or the revealed Deity (שְׁכִינָה, Shekinah) which dwells in the midst of the Jewish people, goes with them and protects them in all their wanderings and captivities. The first triad is placed above, and the second and third triads, with the unit, are put below, in such a manner that the four Sephiroth called crown, beauty, foundation, and kingdom, form a central perpendicular line denominated the middle pillar (עִמּוּד אֶמְצָעִי). This division yields three different forms in which the ten Sephiroth are represented by the Cabalists, and which we subjoin in order to make the description more intelligible. The first represents an inverted tree, called עֵוֹ חִיִּי, the tree of life, while the second and third are human figures, called אָדָם קִדְמוֹן, the primeval man. Yet, notwithstanding the different appearance of these three forms, the Sephiroth are so arranged that the three triads and the middle pillar are to be distinguished in each one of them.
4. Processes of the Divine Development. — These Sephiroth, or God through them, created the lower and visible world, of which everything has its prototype in the upper world. “The whole world is like a gigantic tree full of branches and leaves, the root of which is the spiritual world of the phroth; or it is like a firmly united chain, the last link of which is attached to the upper world; or like an immense sea, which is being constantly filled by a spring everlastingly gushing forth its streams.” The Sephiroth, through the divine power immanent in them, uphold the world which they have created, and transmit to it the divine mercies by means of twelve channels (צַנּוֹרוֹת). This transmission of the divine mercies can be accelerated by prayer, sacrifices, and religious observances; and the Jewish people, by virtue of the revelation, and the 613 commandments given to them, have especially been ordained to obtain these blessings (שֶׁפִע) for the whole world. Hence the great mysteries of the Jewish ritual (סוֹד חִתְּפַילָה); hence the profound secrets contained in every word and syllable of the formulary of prayers; and hence the declaration that “the pious constitute the foundation of the world” (צִדִּיק יְסוֹד עוֹלָם). Not only does the En Soph reveal himself through the Sephiroth, but he also becomes incarnate in them, which accounts for the anthropomorphisms of Scripture and the Hagada. Thus, when it is said that “God spake, descended upon earth, ascended into heaven, smelled the sweet smell of sacrifices; repented in his heart, was angry,” etc., or when the Hagadic works describe the body and the mansions of God, etc., all this does not refer to the En-Soph, but to these intermediate beings. These Sephiroth again became incarnate in the patriarchs, e.g. Sephira 4, love was incarnate in Abraham; 5, power in Isaac; 6, beauty in Jacob; 7, firmness in Moses; 8, splendor in Aaron; 9, foundation in Joseph; 10, kingdom in David; and they constitute the chariot throne (מֶרְכָּבָה).
5. The psychology of the Cabala is one of its most important features. All human souls are pre-existent in the world of the Sephiroth, and are, without an exception, destined to inhabit human bodies, and pursue their course upon earth for a certain period of probation. If, notwithstanding its union with the body, the soul resists all earthly trammels, and remains pure, it ascends after death into the spiritual kingdom, and has a share in the world of Sephiroth. But if, on the, contrary, it becomes contaminated by that which is earthly, the soul must inhabit the body again and again (עִיבוּר, גִּילְגוּל) till it is able to ascend in a purified state, through repeated trial (restricted by Nachmanides and the later cabalists to three transmigrations). The apparently undeserved sufferings which the pious have sometimes to endure here below are simply designed to purify their souls. Hence God’s justice is not to be impugned when the righteous are afflicted and the wicked prosper. This doctrine of the transmigration of souls is supported by an appeal to the injunction in the Bible, that a man must marry the widow of his brother if he died without issue, inasmuch as by this is designed, say the cabalists, that the soul of the departed onemight be born again, and finish its earthly course. Very few new souls enter into the world, because many of the old souls which have already inhabited bodies have to re-enter those who are born, in consequence of their having polluted themselves in their previous bodily existence. This retards thegreat redemption of Israel, which cannot take place till all the pre-existent souls have been born upon earth, because the soul of the Messiah, which, like all other souls, has its pre-existence in the world of the spirits of the Sephiroth, is to be the last born one at the end of days, which is supported by an appeal to the Talmud (Yebamoth, 63, a). Then the great jubilee year will commence, when the whole pleroma of souls (אוֹצִרהִנִּשְׁמוֹת), cleansed and purified, and released from earth, shall ascend, in glorious company, into heaven.
[ Once again, the Sepher Yetzirah does NOT contain any doctrines regarding the “ transmigration of souls” NOR the “ preexistence of souls”. These were, however, doctrines taught by the Zohar, which Pythagoras, the disciple of Zoroaster, and the Essene brotherhood of the Jews, taught. Pythagoras bequeathed his doctrines to a certain Indian Prince named “ Guatama”, who was later to found the sect and religion of Buddhism. Interestingly, the ancient Aryan Sacae race ( from which the Saxons are descended) gave rise to Guatama, and most of the lineal Lamaistic and Princely descendants of Guatama are drawn from the “ Sacae” race to this day, within the religion of Buddhism. The attempt to assimilate the Sepher Yetzirah to these Zoroastrian and Pythagorean Kabbalistic traditions has given rise to a thorough rejection of ALL “ wisdom literature” of the ancient Jews by subsequent Evangelical Christendom, yet at the same time the OCCULT Kabbalah’s subtle insinuations INTO Christendom have meant that ( as in the case of Philosophical Nominalism) such insinuations have largely gone unnoticed, and have been accepted wholescale by the unwary Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, and, even, the Evangelical… The erosion of the infallible confidence in the Inspiration of Holy Scripture by the Nominalist School of Philosophy ( whose greatest Protestant exponent was Martin Luther; a disciple of William of Ockham; as were most of the other Reformers) has given rise to the “ Critical Tradition” in Biblical research and exposition; and this Critical Tradition in turn has fostered Theism, then Deism, and finally UNBELIEF in the Universities and Colleges and Seminaries of Theology… It is the Kabbalah which has given birth and impetus to the “ Scientific Revolution” of the early 17th Century; being motivated by the revival of Kabbalistic Hermeticism of the Renaissance period, and, particularly, the “ Florentine Academy” of the court of the Medicis in Italy, through Francis Bacon; the “ father” of modern scientific method, and the “ architect”, along with his successor Elias Ashmole, of the Grand Masonic Lodge of England founded in 1717 AD, and patterned after the “ Temple of Solomon” as depicted in Francis Bacon’s book titled “ The New Atlantis”.. Francis Bacon was regarded in his milieu ( see Frances Yates’ work on the “ Rosicrucian Enlightenment”) as a Rosicrucian/ Hermetic adept..]
IV. Origin, Date, Design, and Relations of the Cabala. — The rise of Cabalism is involved in great obscurity. The Jews ascribe it to Adam, or to Abraham, or to Moses, or to Ezra, the last being apparently countenanced by 2Es 14:20-48. The opinions of Christian writers are as variously divided; and the Cabala is such a complex whole, and has been aggregated together at such distant periods, that no general judgment can apply to it. In its crude form it is undoubtedly to be attributed to the authors of the books Jezirah and Zohar above named, and therefore cannot be assigned an earlier date than these writings. Its fuller and more mature doctrines, however, as above delineated, are due to the speculations of later masters of this school. The account of this theosophy has been greatly obscured by modern writers, who, in their description of the Cabala, confound its doctrines with the Jewish mysticism propounded in the works called the Alphabet of R. Akiba (אלפא ביתא דר עקיבא, or אותיות דר עקיבא), the Description of the Body of God (שיעור קומה), and the Delineation of the heavenly Temples (היבלות). Even the book [Sepher] Jezirah DOES NOT CONTAIN the doctrines of the Cabala as above expounded. All these productions, and others of a similar nature so frequently quoted by writers who give an analysis of the Cabala, know little or nothing of the Sephiroth, and of the speculations about the EnSoph, or the being of God, which constitute the essence of the Cabala. Nevertheless, these works are unquestionably to be regarded as having induced the more refined speculations of the Cabala, by the difficulty in which they placed the Jews in the south of France, and in Catalonia, who believed in them almost as much as in the Bible, and who were driven to contrive this system whereby they could explain to themselves, as well as to their assailants, the gross descriptions of the Deity, and of the plains of heaven, given in these Hagadic productions. Being unable to go to the extreme of the rigid literalists of the north of France and Germany, who, without looking for any higher import, implicitly accepted the difficulties and anthropomorphisms of the Bible and Hagada in their most literal sense; or to adopt the other extreme of the followers of Maimonides, who rejected altogether the Hagadic and mystical writings, and rationalized the Scriptures, it may be conjectured that Isaac the blind contrived, and his two disciples, Ezra and Azariel of Zerona, developed the modern system of Cabalism (about 1200-1230), which steers between these two extremes. By means of the Sephiroth all the anthropomorphisms in the Bible, in the Hagada, and even in the Shiur Koma, are at once taken from the Deity, and yet literally explained; while the sacrificial institutions, the precepts, and the ritual of the Bible and Talmud, receive at the same time a profound spiritual inmport. The Cabala in its present state is therefore almermeneutical system, which, in part at least, was instituted to oppose the philosophical school of Maimonides (q.v.).
The relationship between the Cabala- and Neo-Platonism is apparent. The Cabala elevates God above being and thinking, and likewise denies all divine attributes; so does Neo-Platonism. The Cabala, like Neo-Platonism, places intelligent principles or substances between the Deity and the world. The Cabala teaches that the Sephiroth, which emanated from God, are not equal to God; Neo-Platonism teaches that the substances, thought, spirit, and nature (νοῦς, ψύχη, and φύσις), which proceeded from one being,are not equal to their origin (οὐκ ϊvσον δὲ τὸ προÞὸν τῷ μείναντι); and the Cabala has adopted the very same classification of the Sephiroth into the three great spheres of intelligence, animation, and matter. The comparison between the emanation of the Sephiroth from the EnSoph, and the rays proceeding from light to describe immanency and perfect unity, is the same as the NeoPlatonic figure to illustrate the emanations from the one Being (οϊvον ἐκ φωτὸς τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ περίλαμψιν). The doctrine of the Cabala, that most of the souls which enter the world have occupied bodies upon this earth before, is Neo-Platonic (comp. Zeller, Geschder Philosophie, III, 2:944).
V. Later Processes of Cabalism. — In the hands of the younger disciples of the cabalistic science, the secret knowledge was not only studied in its philosophical bearing, but also, and even rather, under two new aspects (which were not mentioned by their predecessors, and which carried it farther than it went at first, though by this we do not mean to say that it received any positively novel additions), namely, the practical application and the hermeneutical method. We find that in olden times secret philosophical science and magic went hand in hand. The sorcerer mentioned in Acts 13 was called by the Arab name of עֵילָם, the secret, i.e.learned; in Acts 19 we read of books of magic which were at Ephesus; the sporadic mentions made of the Cabala in the Talmud are accompanied by descriptions of miracles. When R. Chahina and R. Oshia studied the book of Jezirah, we are told in the treatise Sanhedrim of the Gemara, they also made each time a three-year-old cow, and lived thereon. It is no wonder, then, if the Jewish cabalists of the latter part of the Middle Ages transmitted the conception of their science to their Christian adepts, not only as speculative (עִיּוּנִית), but also as practical (מִעֲשִׂית), i.e. in plain English, that they connected with it the idea that a true cabalist must at the same time be a sorcerer. It is self-evident, however, that we must here distinguish between theosophic overstraining and mere juggling, although in actual practice the difference may sometimes have been hard to perceive. The effects hoped for or believed in magic were accordingly transmitted outwardly through amulets, talismans, exorcisms, images, signs, and such things, consisting of certain writings, names of angels, or mysterious letters, whose connection, however, always leads back to the name of God. This last, unpronounceable to the unconsecrated, but known to the cabalist, whether it consist of four (יהוה), twelve, or forty-two letters (numbers which result from combinations from the Sephir system), was, as such, called הִמְּפֹרָשׁ שֵׁם, the declared name; and he who knew how touse it was a בִּעִל הִשֵּׁם, or master of the name. The well-known implements of magic, such as Solomon’s keys, the shield of David, etc., owe their origin to this line of ideas. Amateurs will find a very entertaining account of these things in Eisenmenger’s Entdecktes Judenthum, in Schudt’s Jewish Curiosities, and other works of the same character.
The exegetical ingenuity of the Cabala is interesting to, the theologian. The principle of the mystic interpretation of Scripture is universal, not particular to such or such schools, as every one will perceive in Church history, and even in the history of Greek literature. We find it in Philo, in the New Test., in the writings of the fathers, in the Talmud, and in the Zohar; and the more it departs from the spirit of the sacred text, the more had the latter to be brought to its support by distortions of its meaning. For such operation there are no known rules except the exigencies of the case and the subjective mass of the sense. In the mean time, the Jews had already, by the arbitrary character of their alphabet, arrived at all manner of subtleties, of which we have already isolated examples in earlier writings, but which were especially established as a virtuosoship in post-Zoharic times. From this arose the following species of cabalistic transformation:
1st. גֵּמִטְרִיָּא, Gematria (γεωμετρία), i.e. the art of discovering the hidden sense of the text by means of the numerical equivalents of the letters. For example, in the first and last verses of the Hebrew Bible are found six א’s, which, according to this method, means that the world is to last 6000 years. The numerical equivalent of the first word of Genesis is 913, which is also the number given by the words בְּתוֹרָה יָצִר (by the law Heformed it, i.e. the world), from whence it follows that the law existed before the creation, and that the latter was accomplished through the former. If the second word of Genesis (בָּרָא) be added to the first, the result is 1116, which is also the equivalent of בְּרוֹאשׁ הִשָּׁנָה נִבְרָא(in the beginning of the year it was created), by which is known that God created the world in thebeginning of the year — that is, in the season of Autumn. The antiquity of this method is already shown in Rev 13:18, where the solution must be ciphered out with the aid of the Hebrew — (or Greek) alphabet. It is also considered as Gematria when Biblical numbers — for instance, dimensions of buildings are expressed in letters, and words again made of them. Still later came speculations on the greater, smaller, inverted, and suspended letters found in the Masoretic text; for instance, Deu 6:4; Gen 2:4; Num 10:35; Jdg 18:30, in which some deep meaning is looked for, although they may perhaps have originally been but peculiar marks to aid memory.
2d. The particularly so-called “figurative” (צוּרִיִּית) Cabala, נוֹטִרְיֵקוּן, Notarikon (from Lat. natzre, to extract), consists in framing with each letter of a word several new ones, e.g. from the first, word of Genesis six can thus be framed: בָּרָא, he made; רָקִיעִ, the firmament; אֶרֶוֹ, the earth; שָׁמִיִם, the heavens; יָם, the sea; תְּהוֹם, the abyss. We thuslearn the correct scientific nature of the universe, besides the propermeaning of the text. Again, it consists in taking the first letters of several words to form a new one: e.g. Deu 30:12, מִי יִעֲלֶהאּלָּנוּ הִשָּׁמִיְמָה, who shall bring us to heaven? Answer: מִילָה, circusm cisioni.
3d, תְּמוּרָה, Temurah (permutation), the anagram, of two kinds. The sifiple is a mere transposition of the letters of a word: e.g. we thus learn Michael (מִיבָאֵל). The more ingenious kind is that by which, according to certain established rules, each letter of the alphabet acquires the signification of another: as Aleph that of Tan, both that of Ayin. Then, again, the letters may be read forward and backward (which constitute the alphabet of Athbash, אִתִבִּשׁ), or the first letter that of the twelfth, the second of the thirteenth, and the reverse (making the alphabet called Albam, אִלְבּס). SEE ATBACH.
The more multifarious these trifles, the easier it is to arrive in every given case at a result, and the less wit or thought is required. Thus the Christian theology of the 17th century, which itself inclined to literal belief, and which, by its strong polemical aspect against the Jews, was led to a diligent study of the cabalistic arts, through them found everywhere in the Old Test. evidences of the Christian dogmas (e.g. Gen 1:1, בְּרֵאשִׁית=בֵּן רוּחִ אָב שְׁלשָׁה יְחִידָה תָמָה, i.e. filius, spiritus, pater; tres unitasperfecta).
In the 13th century we find evidence of a knowledge of the cabalistic ideas and methods in the works of the Spaniard Raymond Lullus; but with him, as well as among his direct and indirect followers, these elements of Judaic philosophy take the character of eccentricities and superstitions more than of grand speculative theory. Two centuries elapsed after this before the Cabala really entered the circle of Christian mental development. Its admission was prepared, on the one hand, by the overthrow of the worn- out scholasticism of Aristotle, and the consequent tendency toward Platonic ideas, although, of course, these latter were yet in their more elementary form, as they had been transmitted to Alexandria by Eastern influences; on the other hand, the same result was conduced by an awakening interest in the study of nature, which, it is true, was still in apoetic, dream-like infancy, but was the more inclined to entertain itself with mysteries, as it had discovered as yet but few natural laws. To these was, however, joined a third and more powerful influence, namely, the belief handed down by the fathers of the first centuries that all the wisdom of nations, and chiefly Platonic philosophy, actually took their origin in the Hebraic revelation; that, in a more extended sense than the popular religious histories admit, the Jewish people were the possessors and keepers of a treasury of wisdom and knowledge which time or zealous research could alone reveal. What wonder is it, then, if the assertion of the them followers? The progress of Christians toward the Cabala was greatly helped by the conversion of a large number of Jews to Christianity, in which they recognized a closer relation to their Gnostic views, and also by the Christians perceiving that Gnosticism could become a powerful instrument for the conversion of the Jews. Among the converted Jews we notice Paul Ricci, physician in ordinary to the Emperor Maximilian, and author of Cdelestis Agricultura; Judas Ben Isaac Abrabanel (Leon Hebraeus), son of the renowed Portuguese exegist, and author of the Dlalogi de amore. Among Christians we will only mention the two most important: John Pico della Mirandola and John Reuchlin; the former as a highly gifted and enthusiastic syncratist, author of Conclusiones cabbalisticce secundum secretarm disciplinam sapientice Hebr. (1486); the other a faithful disciple of the classics, in connection with mysticism, but opposed to scholasticism and monachal torpitude, author of De verbo mirijco (1494); De arte cabbalistica (1517). His, and some other writings of the same kind, are collected in the work Artes CabbaEsticce h. e.reconditce theologice etphilosophicw Scriptorum, tom. 1 (unicus), ex. bibl. J. Pistorii (Basle, 1587, fol.). The powerful preponderance of the religious and Church interests, as well as those of practical politics, which became perceptible in the first quarter of the 16th century, giving to the mind a positive impulse, and to studies a substantial foundation, arrested the further development of the Cabala; and when, in latter times, it was occasionally taken up again, it was rather with the view of giving a high- sounding, mystericus name to theories which had not strength enough to stand by themselves, than as a genuine resurrection If the old systems.
The earliest cabalist was Asariel, whose Commentary on the Doctrine of the Sephiroth (פֵּרוּשׁ עֶשֶׂר סְפִירוֹת), in questions and answers, has been published (Warsaw, 1798; Berl. 1850); also his Commentary on the Song of Songs (Altona, 1764), usually ascribed to his pupil Nachmanides or Ramban (q.v.).
Among the most important cabalists we find Rabbi Moses Ben Nachman, author of the Books of Faith and Hope (אמֵוּנָה וּבִטָּחוֹן); R. Jose, of Castile, author of שִׁעֲרֵי אוֹרָה(Doors of Light); R. Moses, of Cordova, פִּרִדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים(Garden of Pomegranates); R. Isaac Loria, הִגִּלְגּוּלִים סֵפֶר(Book of the Wanderings of Souls); R. Chayim Vital, עֵוֹ חִיִּים(Tree of Life); R. Nastali Ben Jacob Elchanan, עֵמֶק הִמֶּלֶךְ (Valley cf the King); R. Abraham Cohen, of Herrera (vulg. Iriva), שִׁעִר הִשָּׁמִיִם (Door of Heaven)…….”
Alfred Edersheim, in his monumental work on the “ Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Appendix 5” has a copius reference to the relationship between Jewish Rabbinism and Kabbalistic speculation. I have included the entire translation by Edersheim ( the first ever in English) of the Sepher Yetzirah, as an Appendix in this treatise also, which work was purported traditionally to have been composed by Abraham himself.. The Kabbalistic system of “ gematria”, which is authorized by the Apostle John in the Apocalypse, stems from this Abrahamic “ wisdom tradition”, yet has nothing in common with Zoroastrian, Pythagorean, or Essene/Therapeutaeic, influences:
Appendix V. Rabbinic Theology and Literature.
(Book I. ch. viii.)
3. Any attempt to set forth in this place a detailed exposition of the Exegetical Canons of the Rabbis, or of their application, would manifestly be impossible. It would require almost a treatise of its own; and a cursory survey would neither be satisfactory to the writer nor instructive to the general reader. Besides, on all subjects connected with Rabbinic exegesis, a sufficient number of learned treatises exist, which are easily accessible to students, while the general reader can only be interested in such general results as have been frequently indicated throughout these volumes. Lastly, the treatment of certain branches of the subject, such as a criticism of the Targumim, really belongs to what is known as the science of ‘Introduction,’ either to the Old or the New Testament, in manuals of which, as well as in special treatises all such subjects are fully discussed. Besides these the student may be referred, for a general summary, to the labours of Dr. Hamburger (Real-Encycl.). Special works on various branches of the subject cannot here be named, since this would involve an analysis and critical disquisition. But for a knowledge of the Rabbinic statements in regard to the Codices and the text of the Old Testament, reference may here be made to the short but masterly analysis of Professor Strack (Prolegomena Critica), in which, first, the various codices of the Old Testament, and then the text as existing in Talmudical times, are discussed, and the literature of the subject fully and critically given. The various passages are also mentioned in which the Biblical quotations in the Mishnah and Gemara differ from our present text. Most of them are, however, of no exegetical importance. On the exegesis of the Rabbis generally, I would take leave to refer to the sketch of it given in the ‘History of the Jewish Nation,’ ch. xi., and especially in App. V., on ‘Rabbinical Exegesis,’ where all its canons are enumerated. Some brief notices connected with Rabbinic Commentaries quoted in this work will be found in the List of Abbreviations.
4. Somewhat similar observations must be made in regard to the mystical Theology of the Synagogue, or the so-called Kabbalah. Its commencement must certainly be traced to, and before, the times described in these volumes. For a discussion of its origin and doctrines I must once more take leave to refer to the account given in the ‘History of the Jewish Nation’ (pp. 435, etc.). The whole modern literature of the subject, besides much illustrative matter, is given in the Italian text annexed to David Castelli’s edition of Sabbatai Donnolo’s Hebrew Commentary on the Book yeṣirah, or the Book of Creation. For, the Kabbalah busies itself with these two subjects: the History of the Creation (yeṣirah, perhaps rather ‘formation’ than Creation), and the ‘merkaḇah,’ or the Divine apparition as described by Ezekiel. Both refer to the great question, underlying all theosophic speculation: that of God’s connection with His creatures. They treat of the mystery of Nature and of Providence, with especial bearing on Revelation; and the question, how the infinite God can have any connection or intercourse with finite creatures, is attempted to be answered. Of the two points raised, that of Creation is of course the first in the order of thinking as well as of time – and the book yeṣirah is the oldest Kabbalistic document.
The sep̱er yeṣirah is properly a monologue on the part of Abraham, in which, by the contemplation of all that is around him, he ultimately arrives at the conviction of the Unity of God.
We distinguish the substance and the form of creation; that which is, and the mode in which it is. We have already indicated that the original of all that exists is Divine. 1st, We have God; 2nd, God manifest, or the Divine entering into form, 3rd, that Divine in its form, from which in turn all original realities are afterwards derived. In the sep̱er yeṣirah, these Divine realities (the substance) are represented by the ten numerals, and their form by the twenty-two letters which constitute the Hebrew alphabet – language being viewed as the medium of connection between the spiritual and the material; as the form in which the spiritual appears. At the same time, number and language indicate also the arrangement and the mode of creation, and, in general, its boundaries. “By thirty-two wonderful paths,” so begins the sep̱er yeṣirah, ‘‘the Eternal, the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, the Living God, the King of the World, the merciful and gracious God, the glorious One, He that inhabiteth eternity, Whose Name is high and holy, has created the world.” But these ten numerals are in reality the ten sep̱iroṯ, or Divine emanations, arranged in triads, each triad consisting of two opposites (flowing or emanating from a superior triad until, the Divine Unity is reached), and being reconciled in a middle point of connection. These ten sep̱iroṯ, in the above arrangement, recur everywhere, and the sacred number ten is that of perfection. Each of these sep̱iroṯ flows from its predecessor, and in this manner the Divine gradually evolves. This emanation of the ten sep̱iroṯ then constitutes the substance of the world; we may add, it constitutes everything else. In God, in the world, in man, everywhere we meet these ten sep̱iroṯ, at the head of which is God manifest, or the memra (Logos, the Word). If the ten sep̱iroṯ give the substance, the twenty-two letters are the form of creation and of revelation. “By giving them form and shape, and by interchanging them, God has made the soul of everything that has been made, or shall be made.” “Upon those letters, also, has the Holy One, Whose Name be praised, founded His holy and glorious Name.” These letters are next subdivided, and their application in all the departments of nature is shown. In the unit creation, the triad: world, time and man are found. Above all these is the Lord. Such is a very brief outline of the rational exposition of the Creation, attempted by the sep̱er yeṣirah…..” ( Alfred Edersheim: “Life and Times”)
To do the matter justice, we ought to note that the “ Sepher Yetzirah”, with the concept of GEMATRIA is the ONLY piece of Kabbalistic literature that is NOT of Zoroastrian, Essene, or Pythagorean production.. In itself, it is not a work of the occult tradition, but thoroughly exhibits a very ancient Hebrew tradition that may indeed, as some of the Rabbis themselves claim, go back to father Abraham himself.. ALL of the other Kabbalistic literary productions such as the Zohar and the Bahir, are indeed Zoroastrian and Pythagorean in origin, being works of occult mysticism. Proto-Kabbalistic speculations were embraced by the Jews during their captivity at Babylon; hence their link with Zoroastrianism; whereas the Pythagorean strain was inherited from the Alexandrian tradition, particularly from Philo of Alexandria, the Platonist and mystic. It is the mystical Zohar, and not so much the Sepher Yetzirah, primarily, that has occupied the speculations of the Rabbis over the last Millennia or more, particularly Rabbi Rashi, Ramban ( in his early years and career) and their circle.. The tradition of the Zohar was conveyed by the secret Kabbalistic brotherhoods to the newly founded Hermetic Florentine Academy at the Court of the Medicis in Florence, Italy, around the time of the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire to the Turks, in 1453 A.D… ( see Frances Yates’ works on the subject of the origins of the Renaissance), and through this Academy its doctrines were both openly and secretly conveyed to Western Europe by the Humanists, such as Giordano Bruno, Marsilio Ficino, and eventually “Christianized” by Johannes Reuchlin; the grand-uncle of the great German Reformer, Philip Melancthon; the author of the Lutheran Confessions, and the right-hand-man of Martin Luther…
To illustrate HOW the Kabbalah concerns itself with the “ Doctrine of the Twelve tribes”, we need to remember that occult Jewish tradition ascribes a constellation of the zodiac to EACH of the twelve tribes of Israel.. Each constellation, however, is represented superimposed GEOGRAPHICALLY on the globe of the earth, and can be, by the adept kabbalist, SUPERIMPOSED on the globe in such a manner as to cover an area that is inhabited by a given particular nation.. Since the Jewish Kabbalistic Rabbis believed that the seed of Abraham would cover the entire earth, they falsely attributed the rule of Israelite tribes to regions and areas BEYOND Palestine; particularly the regions that were and are inhabited by the Gentile, European, nations… The great Cartographer of the mid 17th century, Andreas Cellarius, depicted in his Atlas the “ Harmony of the Macrocosmos”; that is, the Kabbalistic superimposition of the 12 constellations ( representing the twelve tribes of Israel, according to the Kabbalistic Rabbis) on the surface of the earthly globe, in imitation of the so-called “ Gospel in the Stars” which astrologers intimate exists, but which is mere occult speculation and astrological juggling… For instance, the standard of Ephraim was represented by a Bull, which, Astrologically, was deemed to be the constellation Taurus.. Judah has as his standard the Lion, which, once again to the Kabbalistic Rabbi, represents the constellation Leo, and so on. Though there may be some mysterious truth of correspondences between the tribes of Israel and the Zodiacal Constellations, the speculations we are discussing are quite exaggerated by the Kabbalists and Rabbis, and serve the cause of UNIVERSAL ECUMENISM, rather than the truth….. When superimposed on the globe of the earth, the constellation of the BULL roughly corresponds to the “ western isles”, particularly Britain and Ireland.. Though Cellarius depicted these correspondences in a somewhat different fashion, the secret Kabbalistic interpretation is based upon certain conjunctions of the seven planets and motions of the constellations of the zodiac, which accord with the above statement and conclusions…
The following Jewish Encyclopedia article on the ten lost tribes of Israel is much more to the point… The undisputed claims of the Afghani tribes and some of the Pakistani and Indian tribes to be of Israelite descent, as well as many of the Sarmatian ( Slavic) peoples, must be encouraged in light of the counterfeiting of the matter by that “ mystery of iniquity” which seeks to exterminate not only all semblance of truth, but the very tribes themselves, in order to attempt to, by stealth, overthrow and assume the true and future rights and priviledges of the literal descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.. The Victorian Era British mentality, so beset at the time with their theory of British-Israelite descent, likewise made secret attempts to destroy the true descendants of the Israelites; the Afghanis, by wholescale war and attempted genocide… All this was a result of Replacement Theology.. The same was attempted by the British and the French in their wars against the Slavic people of the Russias, in whose realm a great number of descendants of the tribes of Israel reside… The false theory of the supposed “ Khazar” descent of Ashkenazi Jews was too close to the National Socialist agenda in Germany to be a mere coincidence. Hitler successfully perpetuated the Replacement Theology ideal which the Papacy and the Reformers such as Luther and Calvin, had had brewing for many centuries, and to which the British and remaining European nations in the main all subscribed to in one way or another…
TRIBES, LOST TEN: ( Excerpts from the Jewish Encyclopedia article)
.According to the Bible, Tiglath-pileser (II Kings xv. 29) or Shalmaneser (ib. xvii. 6, xviii. 11), after the defeat of Israel, transported the majority of the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and Habor, on the stream of Gozan, and in the towns of Media. In their stead a mixed multitude was transported to the plains and mountains of Israel. As a large number of prophecies relate to the return of “Israel” to the Holy Land, believers in the literal inspiration of the Scriptures have always labored under a difficulty in regard to the continued existence of the tribes of Israel, with the exception of those of Judah and Levi (or Benjamin), which returned with Ezra and Nehemiah. If the Ten Tribes have disappeared, the literal fulfilment of the prophecies would be impossible; if they have not disappeared, obviously they must exist under a different name. The numerous attempts at identification that have been made constitute some of the most remarkable curiosities of literature.
In the Apocrypha it is presumed that the Ten Tribes still exist as tribes. Thus Tobit is stated to be of the tribe of Naphtali, and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs assume their continuous existence. In the Fourth Book of Ezra (xiii. 39-45) it is declared that the Ten Tribes were carried by Hosea, king in the time of Shalmaneser, to the Euphrates, at the narrow passages of the river, whence they went on for a journey of a year and a half to a place called Arzareth. Schiller-Szinessy pointed out that “Arzareth” is merely a contraction of “ereẓ aḥeret,” the “other land” into which the Lord says He “will cast them [the people] as this day”; see Deut. xxix. 27, which verse is referred by R. Akiba to the Lost Ten Tribes (Sanh. x. 4; comp. “Journal of Philology,” iii. 114).
According to haggadic tradition, the Ten Tribes were divided into three groups, one on this side of the River Sambation, another on the opposite side, and the third in the neighborhood of Daphne, near Antioch (Lam. R. v. 2). This was based on the Targum of pseudo-Jonathan to Ex. xxxiv. 10; but the course of the River Sambation is differently given, according to the prepossessions of the various writers (see Sambation). Akiba, indeed, because he was a believer in the Messianic claims of Bar Kokba, and trusted in the immediate fulfilment of such passages as Isa. xi. 11, Jer. xxi. 7, Ezek. xxxvii. 15, without the restoration of Israel, distinctly expressed the opinion that the Ten Tribes would never return (Sanh. x. 3). In the ninth century Eldad ben Mahli ha-Dani came forward, claiming to give specific details of the contemporary existence of the Ten Tribes and of their location at that time. Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher were in Havilah; Zebulun and Reuben in the mountains of Paran; Ephraim and half of Manasseh in South Arabia; Simeon and the other half of Manasseh in the land of the Chazars (?). According to him, therefore, the Ten Tribes were settled in parts of southern Arabia, or perhaps Abyssinia, in conformity with the identification of Havilah. The connection of this view with that of the Jewish origin of Islam is obvious; and David Reubeni revived the view in stating that he was related to the king of the tribes of Reuben situated in Khaibar in North Arabia.
According to Abraham Farissol, the remaining tribes were in the desert, on the way to Mecca, near the Red Sea; but he himself identifies the River Ganges with the River Gozan, and assumes that the BeniIsrael of India are the descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes. The Ganges, thus identified by him with the River Sambation, divides the Indians from the Jews. The confusion between Ethiopia and Farther India which existed in the minds of the ancients and medieval geographers caused some writers to place the Lost Ten Tribes in Abyssinia. Abraham Yagel, in the sixteenth century, did so, basing his conclusions on the accounts of David Reubeni and Eldad ha-Dani. It is probable that some of the reports of the Falashas led to this identification. According to Yagel, messengers were sent to these colonists in the time of Pope Clement VII., some of whom died, while the rest brought back tidings of the greatness of the tribes and their very wide territories. Yagel quotes a Christian traveler, Vincent of Milan, who was a prisoner in the hands of the Turks for twenty-five years, and who went as far as Fez, and thence to India, where he found the River Sambation, and a number of Jews dressed in silk and purple. They were ruled by seven kings, and upon being asked topay tribute to the sultan Salim they declared they had never paid tribute to any sultan or king. It is just possible that this may have some reference to the “Sâsanam” of the Jews of Cochin. It is further stated that in 1630 a Jew of Salonica traveled to Ethiopia, to the land of Sambation, and that in 1646 one Baruch, traveling in Persia, claimed to have met a man named Malkiel of the tribe of Naphtali, and brought back a letter from the king of the children of Moses; this letter was seen by Azulai. It was afterward reprinted in Jacob Saphir’s book of travels (“Eben Sappir,” i. 98). Moses Edrehi wrote a separate work on the subject. So much interest was taken in this account that in 1831 a certain Baruch ben Samuel of Pinsk was sent to search for the children of Moses in Yemen. He traveled fifteen days in the wilderness, and declared he met Danites feeding flocks of sheep. So, too, in 1854 a certain Amram Ma’arabi set out from Safed in search of the Ten Tribes; and he was followed in 1857 by David Ashkenazi, who crossed over through Suakin to make inquiries about the Jews of Abyssinia.
Nestorians and Devil-Worshipers.
In 1835 Asahel Grant, an American physician, was appointed by the American Board of Foreign Missions to pursue his calling among the Nestorians of Mesopotamia. He found among them a tradition that they were descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes, a tradition which had already been gathered by Smith and White during their earlier mission (“Researches in Armenia,” vol. ii.). He found also among the Jews of the neighborhood of Urumiah recognition of this tradition, which he considered to be confirmed by the following facts: they dwelt in the neighborhood to which the Israelites were originally deported, while Josephus declared that the Ten Tribes lived beyond the Euphrates up to his time (“Ant.” xi. 5, § 3), and his statement is confirmed by Jerome (“Opera,” vi. 780); their language is a branch of the Aramaic; they still offer sacrifices and first-fruits like the ancient Israelites, and they prepare for the Sabbath on the preceding evening; they have Jewish names and Jewish features. Other similarities of custom are recorded by Grant (“The Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes,” New York, 1845). Grant was of the opinion also that the Yezidis, or devil-worshipers, of the same region were likewise descended from the Ten Tribes, as they observed the rite of circumcision, offered sacrifices, including that of the paschal lamb on the 24th of Nisan, and also abstained from forbidden food (ib. pp. 363-372).
According to their native traditions, the Afghans also are to be identified with the Lost Ten Tribes. They declare that Nebuchadnezzar banished them into the mountains of Ghur, whence they maintained correspondence with the Arabian Jews. When some of the latter were converted by Mohammed, one Khalid wrote to the Afghans and invited them to embrace Islam. Several Afghan nobles went to Arabia under one Ḳais, who claimed to trace his descent through forty-seven generations from Saul. He was accordingly greeted by Mohammed by the title of “malik,” in deference to this illustrious descent. Ḳais is reported to have died at the age of eighty-seven, in 662; and all the modern chiefs of Afghanistan claim to be descended from him (Malcolm, “History of Persia,” ii. 596, London, 1815). The Afghans still call themselves “Beni-Israel,” and are declared to have a markedly Jewish appearance. Their claim to Israelitish descent is allowed by most Mohammedan writers. G. Moore, in his “Lost Tribes” (pp. 143-160, London, 1861), also identified the Afghans with the Ten Tribes.
Karaites and the Caucasus.
In order to avoid the disabilities imposed upon Rabbinite Jews, the Karaites of Russia attempted to prove that they were guiltless of the execution of Jesus because they were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes and had been settled in the Crimea since the time of Shalmaneser (seventh century B.C.). In particular Abraham Firkovich edited a number of forgeries of inscriptions on tombstones and manuscripts to prove the early date of their settlement in the Crimea. The argument was effective with the Russian government in 1795, when they were exempted from the double taxation imposed upon the Rabbinites, and in 1828, when it obtained for them exemption from military service. From the similar traditions among the Jews of the Caucasus, according to Chorny (“Sefer ha-Massa’ot,” p. 585, St. Petersburg, 1884), the Jews of Derbent declared that the Daghestan Jews were those who were carried away by the Assyrians, and that some of them had ultimately migrated to Bokhara, and even as far as China. It is, of course, only natural that the outlying colonies in China, in India, and even in the Sahara should have been at one time or another identified as remnants of the Lost Ten Tribes.
One of the most curious offshoots of the theory is that which identifies the Shindai, or holy class, of Japan as the descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes. This is advocated by N. McLeod in his “Epitome of the Ancient History of Japan” (3d ed., Tokyo, 1879). He calls attention to a point of agreement between the two, namely, the fact that the first known king of Japan was Osee, 730 B.C., and the last king of Israel was Hosea, who died 722 B.C. In addition to this, McLeod points out that the Shinto temple is divided into a holy and a most holy place. The priests wear a linen dress, bonnet, and breeches, like the Jewish priests of old, and the ancient Temple instruments are used in the Shinto temple. The Japanese worship their ancestors, as the old Israelites did; and in addition to this McLeod points out the Jewish appearance of some Japanese, and supplements his “Epitome” with a volume of illustrations depicting among other things the supposed rafts on which the Israelites crossed, via Saghalien, to Japan, and their supposed order of march. Still further removed is the suggestion of some writers that the Australians are the Lost Tribes because they practise circumcision (“Allg. Zeit. de. Jud.” 1842, No. 6).
Quite recently the Masai of British East Africa have been identified owing to similarity of custom (M. Merker, “Die Masai,” Berlin, 1904)…..”
Much has been touted over the past few centuries, particularly in Protestant circles that have concerned themselves with Prophetical Exegesis, as to the origin of those enigmatic northern nations which the Prophet Ezekiel prophesied would descend upon the nation of Israel just prior to the return of their Messiach; Jesus Christ, to establish His Father’s Kingdom on a renovated and rejuvenated earth; namely, the nations of Gog and Magog, and, after an interregnum of 1000 years, would repeat the dastardly deed, having succeeded in gathering all nations under their bitter wings for the purpose of destroying the nation of Israel in their own land… Historical legends surrounding these northern nations from the time of Alexander the Great and onwards, have created a convenient screen of smoke around the real protagonists in question, yet simultaneously have managed to relay the blame on more innocent shoulders..
The ancient name of the race of Gog ( who was historically known as “ Cauc”) is forever imbedded in the great mountain range north of Israel from which his descendants, along with the progeny of Magog ( the ancient name of the Scythian/Magyar/Tartar/Mongol/Amerindian & Eskimo tribes), have perennially descended upon more southern and eastern latitudes for the purpose of conquest and rapine… The mountain range is of course the Caucasus; the home of those northern barbarian nations which history has bequeathed the name of “ Caucasian”…
Historically, the Caucasian ( Aryan “ longheads”) Race was infact a great “ confederacy” of Japhetic nations which resided in the Caucasus mountains; having the Scythian nations ( Magog) as their northern and north- eastern allies and neighbours.. The crux of the “Race of Gog” consisted of several tribes that included the nation of Albion ( the Angles and the Saxons/Sacae and the Albans/Albanians), as well as the British Khumry ( Cimmerians and Phrygians), and several other Gaulish/ Celtic, Gothic/Getae and Aryan Tribes…. The nations descended from Magog, however, were, as Herodotus affirmed, a populous nation dedicated to the religion of Shamanism.. Their chief name was that of the “ Scythians”, who were divided into three major branches; the ROYAL branch being the progenitor of the “ Scoloti” or “ SCOTTISH RACE” ( the name of SCOT is derived from SCYTHE/SCYTHIAN/ Scoloti, and even their famed TARTAN skirt by which each clan was distinguished, harks back to their north-eastern land of origin: TARTARY- the home of the Finno-Ugrian-Magyar, Turkic, Scottish and the Mongol Tribes)… The spread of these Ugric-Mongol Tribes over the Bering Strait and into the Americas, Greenland etc, has indeed confirmed Herodotus’ statements as to the history and widespread nature of the Scythian Tribes, who had even in his day spread to the ends of the known earth and beyond…
The Royal Magog tribe ( Scythian) is therefore to be found in the Scottish race, whereas the main body of the descendants of Gog ( the Caucasians) are represented by the Anglo-Saxon- Aryan race…The confederacy also lists a third tribe, that of the “ RUS”, or “ ROSH” as a head tribe of the armies of Gog and Magog.. History has named a NORWEGIAN TRIBE called the “ RUS”, who conquered the Slavs of present day Russia and gave them their own name as well as their Royal Lineage; forming in their own right the white Russian people… The Slavic tribes, who have been falsely equated with Gog and Magog and Rosh, were in ancient times known as the descendants of the MEDES/MADAI; the SAR-MADAI ( Sarmatians); and it was to the “ cities of these Medes” that a number of the 10 scattered tribes of Israel migrated at the time of Shalmanasser’s captivity of Samaria and dispersal of the Kingdom of the 10 tribes of Israel….
So we may thus fathom and discover how history has been contorted in order to counterfeit the identity of the actual “lost” 10 tribes of Israel, and by whom, and for what possible reasons.. The entire world is being groomed and herded into a great confederacy in order to attempt the complete destruction of the real descendants of the Tribes of Israel.. After an initial period of false world peace and the establishment of a new “ Golden Age” under the aegis of the final world Emperor/Antichrist and the final Pope/ False Prophet, the unleashed fury of Rosh, Gog and Magog will descend upon the nation of Israel itself at the valley of Megiddo in Israel… It is then that Jesus Christ, the only Messiach and Saviour of the World, will descend from the heavens in triumph to exact vengeance on behalf of the innocent and the nation of the Jews, who for so long have rejected Him; having also crucified Him by the hand of Rome… It is then that the Messianic Kingdom will be established on earth, and the “ Father’s Will Be Done On Earth As In Heaven”…….